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太虛大師的顯密交流初探-以日本密宗爲例

Master Taixu's Communication of Exoteric and Esoteric Buddhism-An Example of Japanese Mantrayana

Abstracts


本文主要以釋太虛爲核心,探討民國初期日本真言密宗回傳中國,這個具有多重重要意義風潮的歷史。十九世紀末、二十世紀初期,中國歷史性的政治變革和社會轉型,爲漢傳佛教的復興提供了重要契機。清末民初漢傳佛教衰敗,改革聲浪日起,這波日本密宗風潮的起因,和中日政治、宗教、文化上的不對等有密切關係,所謂顯密交流其實只有單向輸入。1918年,廣東王弘願譯出權田雷斧《密宗綱要》一書,此時正值釋太虛的佛教改革事業第二期,以「八宗共揚」思想爲主,視密教復興爲中國佛教復興的一個組成部分。在太虛以《海潮音》等傳播媒體的大力助推之下,漢傳佛教天台、華嚴各宗僧人相繼前往日本求法,形成民初赴日留學僧主要是學密的一股風氣,結果卻是這股日本密宗風潮,使太虛的施主們紛紛由顯改密,幾乎推倒了他所創立的武昌佛學院。後來雖然在顯密佛教間有諸多律制與義理上的論戰,但太虛在理想與現實上,卻仍始終抱持要復興密宗的胸懷,這個態度倒不因武昌佛學院的挫折而有所改變。

Parallel abstracts


This article mainly examines Master Taixu's communication of exoteric and esoteric Buddhism with a focus on Japanese Mantrayana's return back to China at the beginning of the 20th century, which is an important historical event with multiple meanings. In the end of 19th century, political changes and social transformations in China provided a critical opportunity for Chinese Buddhism to be revived. At that time, Chinese Buddhism was declining and the demand for reform was growing. Japanese Mantrayana back to China reflected the imbalanced sino-japanese relations in politics, religion and culture. The exchange of exoteric and esoteric Buddhism was actually a one-way input. In 1918, when Wang Hong-Yuan translated Gonda Raifu's the Essential Note on the Singon School, Master Taixu pursued the second stage of Buddhist reform. With the very idea to spread eight schools of Chinese Buddhism all together, Master Taixu regarded the revival of Mantrayana as an important part of the reform. Under his encouragement and the influence of his famous Buddhist magazine Haichao Yin (Sound of the Tide), this period saw Mantrayana study became a trend for Chinese monks travelling to Japan. Those from Tain-Tai and Hua-yan schools went to Japan one after another to lean Mantrayana practice. The quick development of Japanese Mantrayana in China persuaded, however, the sponsors of Master Taixu to change their faith from exoteric to esoteric Buddhism. As a result, the Wu-Chang Buddhist College founded by Master Taixu was nearly closing down due to lack of support. Some controversy erupted afterwards between exoteric and esoteric Buddhism over disciplines and doctrines, but Master Taixu still ideally and realistically insisted on his aspiration to revive Mantrayana. He never changed his mind even when the Wu-Chang Buddhist College was in times of crisis.

References


于淩波(2005)。民國高僧傳初編。台北:知書房。
中村元、余萬居譯(1984)。中國佛教發展史。台北:天華出版社。
台灣總督府文教局社會課編纂,《台灣的神社與宗教》,台北:台灣總督府,1943 年
肖平(2003)。近代中國佛教復興─與日本佛教界的交往錄。廣州:廣東人民出版社。
洪金蓮(1999)。太虛大師佛教現代化之研究。台北:法鼓出版社。

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