透過您的圖書館登入
IP:34.236.134.129
  • Journals

大乘三昧法門「入世利生」之次第-以智顗大師與印順導師止觀思想的比較爲主

A Study on the Stages of the Practice of Samadhi in Mahayana Teachings: Focusing on the Comparative Studies between Venerable Zhi-yi and Venerable Yin-shun's Ideologies on the Practice of Concentration and Contemplation

Abstracts


本文首先分析佛教定慧二學從解脫道重視禪定與觀智的修學,轉變爲菩薩道強調諸多利生三昧的原因。其中,又因眾生根性有異,行法的內容又分爲慈悲、智慧與信願三門。 接著比較智顗大師的天台圓教與印順導師的人間佛教,二人的止觀思想,對於法門施設與次第安立的差別。 相同的是:一、二人皆注意到了大乘禪波羅蜜的精神,是在於「三昧力」的培養。故圓頓止觀重視「四種三昧」的施設,而人間佛教舉揚「無量三昧」的特德。二、二人皆重視以中道智慧做爲修行三昧的義理依歸。 別異的是:一、對於大乘三要門的修行次第,智顗大師以信願法先行,而印順導師則以慈悲行爲核心。二、在利益眾生與修習止觀之間,智顗大師認爲領眾將妨礙行者的止觀進境,而印順導師則主張利益眾生是爲大乘三昧正境,亦是菩薩道的主要心髓。 總結而言,二位大德的大乘止觀思想,皆紹繼了初期大乘龍樹菩薩對於禪定與智慧二波羅蜜的闡揚。在慈悲、智慧與信願之大乘三要門中,二人皆以智覺慧觀爲主,而在具體行門上,又分別對大乘的信願與慈悲二門,有獨到而深廣的闡發。

Parallel abstracts


This article first analyses reasons on how the cultivation of meditation and wisdom in Buddhism transformed from, the Path of Liberation that emphasises the cultivation of concentration and contemplation, into the application of samadhi in helping and guiding sentient beings in the Path of Bodhisattva. Taking into account the different spiritual foundations of sentient beings, the practice is further categorised into the cultivation of loving kindness and compassion, wisdom, faith and determination. The article continues with comparative studies between the Complete Teaching of Tian-tai school advocated by Venerable Zhi-yi and the Buddhism in Human World taught by Venerable Yin-shun. The comparative studies look into the venerables' ideologies on cultivation of concentration and contemplation and their different ways of establishing practice and defining the stages of attainment. The similarities are: Both venerables took note of the aspiration in practising meditation paramita in Mahayana teaching, that is, the emphasis is on the cultivation of the strength of samadhi. Thus, the teaching of Complete and Immediate practice of concentration and contemplation of the Tian-tai school places great importance on establishing the ”Four Types of Samadhi”. Whilst for Buddhism in Human World, Venerable Yin-shun advocated the special characteristic of ”Immeasurable Samadhi”. Both venerables emphasise the theory and application of the wisdom of Middle Path as the foundation for the practice of samadhi. The differences are: With reference to the three essentials in Mahayana practice, Venerable Zhi-yi places faith and determination as the priority, whereas Venerable Yin-shun highlights the practice of loving kindness and compassion as the core. Between the practice of helping and guiding sentient beings, and the cultivation of concentration and contemplation, Venerable Zhi Yi has the opinion that the act of leading and guiding others will affect one's progress in the cultivation of concentration and contemplation. However, Venerable Yin Shun suggests that helping and guiding sentient beings is the right cultivation of samadhi in Mahayana teaching, it is also the core and essence in the practice of Bodhisattva path. In conclusion, the two venerables' ideologies on the Mahayana practice of concentration and contemplation inherited the advocation of the practice of meditation and wisdom paramitas taught by Nagarjuna Bodhisattva of the Early Mahayana period in India. Among the three essentials in Mahayana practice, that is, loving kindness and compassion, wisdom, faith and determination, both venerables uphold the contemplation and development of wisdom as the core. In practical cultivation, the venerables develop their unique and profound elaborations on the cultivation of faith and determination, and loving kindness and compassion respectively.

References


釋性廣(2010)。智顗大師晚年止觀修證之研究。玄奘佛學研究。13
求那跋陀羅譯,《雜阿含經》,《大正藏》冊 2。
康僧會譯,《六度集經》,《大正藏》冊 3。
般若譯,《大乘本生心地觀經》,《大正藏》冊 3。
曇無讖譯,《悲華經》,《大正藏》冊 3。

Read-around