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慧思「法華三昧」之「大乘頓覺法門」研究

A Study on "the Approach to Mahayana Sudden Enlightenment" in Hwei-si's "Saddharma-pundarika-samadhi"

Abstracts


慧思禪師曾舉揚「法華三昧」爲「大乘頓覺」之殊勝法門,然學界鮮少從止觀實修的角度討論。故本文剖析其中特色,以探究此一號稱玄妙高深的「大乘頓覺法門」之意涵。本文從四個面向進行分析,即:一、慧思個人的實修經歷,二、經典文獻的依據,三、慧思「法華三昧」的修行要件,四、檢視從修行理論到實修成果的具體內容。慧思所說之「法華三昧」的特色,本文歸納爲五點:一、此乃大乘利根者所修之不次第法門,非頓根菩薩與聲聞行人所能企及。二、這是在大乘信願法的「有相行」的基礎上,以大乘智覺爲導的「無相行」行法;慧思名之爲「法華安樂行」,並發揮菩薩忍辱波羅蜜的深義。三、若能成就甚深禪定力道,以入於「法華三昧」,則能旁通聲聞諸禪定境界。四、以「法華三昧」之一三昧,能入於無量三昧。五、以「六根清淨」爲「法華三昧」修行之證量。「法華三昧」做爲「一切世間難信」的「大乘頓覺」法門,慧思禪師以他的甚深禪悟境界,嚴謹對照傳統大小乘的修行系統知識,使「法華三昧」成爲深具特色而又能溝通二乘禪境義解的大乘三昧法門,爲後來智顗大師建構天台圓教止觀,做了重要的學理與實修的奠基工作。

Parallel abstracts


Chan Master Hwei-si once praised ”saddharma-pundarīka-samādhi” as a unique approach to ”sudden enlightenment in the Mahayana practice”; however, academic studies of this topic rarely discuss it from an empirical perspective based on actual śamatha and vipaśyanā meditation practices. Therefore, this paper shall analyze its distinguishing features so as to explicate the significance of this ”approach to sudden enlightenment in the Mahayana practice” that has been well-acclaimed as supremely mystical and profoundly exalting.This paper analyzes the topic from four perspectives: Hwei-si's personal experiences in meditation practice, scriptural and textual evidences, the requirements to practice Hwei-si's ”saddharma-pundarīka-samādhi,” and a thorough investigation of the concrete achievements attained through the practice, from theories to actual practices.The distinguishing features of Hwei-si's ”saddharma-pundarīkasamādhi” can be concluded with the following five points. First of all, this is a non-sequential approach and practice for highly advanced Mahayana practitioners who are sharp enough and ready for the practice, so it is not for those unequipped bodhisattvas or śrāvaka practitioners (arahats/hearers). Secondly, it is based on ”the attainable practices” of Mahayana approach through faith and vows, which is then furthered as ”un-attainable (formless) practices” and guided by Mahayana wisdom of enlightenment. Hwei-si names it ”the way to bliss in lotus samādhi,” and he further discloses its profound implications in relation to the bodhisattvas' ksānti-pāramitā (forbearance pāramitā). Thirdly, if one can attain extremely profound power of dhyāna samādhi (immensely deep meditative state) so as to enter into ”saddharma-pundarīka-samādhi,” the person can also enter into all other kinds of dhyāna samādhi states attained by the śrāvaka practitioners (arahats). Fourth, with one samādhi attained through ”saddharma-pundarīka-samādhi,” a practitioner can attain infinite samādhi. Fifth, the practice and achievement of ”saddharma-pundarīka-samādhi” can be verified by checking whether the practitioner has attained the state where ”the Six Sense Organs are cleansed and purified” (i.e. purified and freed from any attachment to the vexations generated through the Six Sense Organs).”Saddharma-pundarīka-samādhi” is treated as an ”unbelievable approach to Mahayana sudden enlightenment among all worlds.” With his profound enlightened meditative achievements, Chan Master Hwei-si carefully compared and contrasted the various practice systems and knowledge between the Hinayana and Mahayana traditions, and then turned ”saddharma-pundarīka-samādhi” into a unique approach to attain Mahayana samādhi, an approach which not only contains distinguishing features but also bridges our comprehension and interpretation of the meditative progresses and states between the two traditions. In terms of theoretical discourses and actual practices, he had laid a significant foundation for the future work to construct the Perfect-teachings on śamatha and vipaśyanā meditation practices of Tian-tai School, a task to be completed by Master Zhiyi.

References


安世高譯,《長阿含十報法經》,《大正藏》冊1
求那跋陀羅譯,《雜阿含經》,《大正藏》冊2
般若譯,《大乘本生心地觀經》,《大正藏》冊3
康僧會譯,《六度集經》,《大正藏》冊3
曇無讖譯,《大般涅槃經》,《大正藏》冊7

Cited by


江律怡(2016)。諦閑法師《念佛三昧寶王論義疏》之詮釋研究〔碩士論文,法鼓文理學院〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://www.airitilibrary.com/Article/Detail?DocID=U0119-2306201615531800

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