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唯識學關於「心、心所」法的三種「所依」—以《成唯識論》及窺基《成唯識論述記》為中心的探討

A Study of Three Kinds of the "Basis (Āśraya)" of "Cognition [or Consciousness](Citta) and Mental Function (Caitasika/ Caitta)" in the Consciousness-Only (vijñāpti-mātra) School-Focusing on the Cheng weishi lun and Kuiji's Cheng weishi lun shuji

Abstracts


本文乃在詳細地分析與論述《成唯識論》及窺基(C.E. 632-682)《成唯識論述記》的解釋中,「心、心所」(citta, caitasika/ caitta)法的三種「所依」(āśraya),即:「因緣依」(hetupratyaya-āśraya)、「等無間緣依」(samanantarapratyaya-āśraya)、「增上緣依」(adhipatipratyayaāśraya)的不同觀點與解釋。在《成唯識論》中,羅列出二種觀點的「因緣依」,三種觀點的「等無間緣依」,以及四種觀點的「增上緣依」,其中都以各自最後一種的觀點為《成唯識論》中護法(Dharmapāla,約6世紀頃)的正義。根據《成唯識論》的解釋,若依據「四緣」(catvārah pratyayāh),即「因緣」(hetu-pratyaya)、「等無間緣」(samanantara-pratyaya)、「所緣緣」(ālambana-pratyaya)、「增上緣」(adhipati-pratyaya)為綱目來作分類的話,「心、心所」法有三種「所依」,即:「因緣依」、「等無間緣依」、「增上緣依」。必須要注意的是,其中並沒有與「所緣緣」相對應搭配的「所緣緣依」。而依據《成唯識論》的正義,這三種「心、心所」法的「所依」,若僅以作為「心法」之一的「阿賴耶識」(ālaya-vijñāna)為例子來說明的話,它們分別是:一、「因緣依」,又稱「種子依」:是指作為「心法」之一的「阿賴耶識」,其自身中的「種子」,構成阿賴耶識的「所依」,而被稱作「因緣依」(「種子依」)。在此情形下,「(現行)阿賴耶識」,則是作為「能依」,與其自身作為「所依」的「種子」,構成「依」之關係。並產生舊種子生現行,現行熏新種子的「俱時因果」關係。二、「等無間緣依」,又稱「開導依」:是指前一念剎那滅謝的「阿賴耶識」作為「所依」,而稱作「等無間緣依」(「開導依」),開避、引導作為「能依」的後一念剎那自類之「(現行)阿賴耶識」的生起,並互相夠成「依」之關係。因為「所依」、「能依」為前、後念剎那間隔生起之「阿賴耶識」,故兩者並能不同時存在,所以又稱為「不俱有(所)依」。三、「增上緣依」,又稱作「俱有(所)依」:是指與「(現行)第八阿賴耶識」俱時而轉起的「第七末那識」作為「所依」而被稱作「增上緣依」(「俱有(所)依」),此時的「(現行)第八阿賴耶識」則作為「能依」,彼此互相構成俱時存在之「依」的關係。因為「能依」、「所依」同時存在而轉起,故又稱為「俱有(所)依」。

Keywords

心所 所依 因緣依 等無間緣依 增上緣依

Parallel abstracts


This article is a study of three kinds of ”basis (āśraya)” of ”cognition [or consciousness] (citta) and mental function (caitasika/ caitta).” From the perspective of Dharmapāla's (護法, fl. c. 6th century) Cheng weishi lun (《成唯識論》) and Kuiji's (窺基, 632-682 C.E.) Cheng weishi lun shuji (《成唯識論述記》), every ”cognition [or consciousness] and mental function” has three kinds of ”bases,” such as the ”basis of direct causes and conditions (hetupratyaya-āśraya),” the ”basis of incessant causation (samanantarapratyaya -āśraya)” and the ”basis of causes beyond direct empowerment (adhipatipratyaya-āśraya).” According to Cheng weishi lun's records, there are two kinds of interpretations of the ”basis of direct causes and conditions,” three kinds of interpretations of the ”basis of incessant causation” and four kinds of interpretations of the ”basis of causes beyond direct empowerment.” In light of the theory of Dharmapāla's Cheng weishi lun, the last kind of interpretation holds the correct meaning.In terms of Cheng weishi lun, the definition of these three kinds of ”bases,” the ”basis of direct causes and conditions,” the ”basis of incessant causation” and the ”basis of causes beyond direct empowerment,” is based on the differentiation of ”four conditions (catvārah pratyayāh),” such as the ”direct causes and conditions (hetu-pratyaya),” the ”incessant causation (samanantara-pratyaya),” the ”object as condition (ālambana-pratyaya)” and the ”causes beyond direct empowerment (adhipati-pratyaya).” We must pay attention to the fact that there is no ”basis of the object as condition (adhipatipratyaya-āśraya)” corresponding to the ”object as condition” here.Therefore, fore example, the ”store consciousness [or eighth consciousness] (ālaya-vijñāna),” one of the ”cognition [or consciousness],” has three kinds of ”bases,” such as the ”seeds (bīja)” in the ”store consciousness [or eighth consciousness]” itself is the ”basis of direct causes and conditions,” the previous ”store consciousness [or eighth consciousness]” disappearing in an instant is the ”basis of incessant causation,” and the ”seventh consciousnesses (mano-vijñāna)” is the ”basis of causes beyond direct empowerment.”

References


唐‧玄奘譯,《瑜伽師地論》,《大正藏》冊30。
唐‧玄奘譯,《大乘阿毘達磨集論》,《大正藏》冊31。
唐‧玄奘譯,《成唯識論》,《大正藏》冊31。
唐‧玄奘譯,《唯識二十論》,《大正藏》冊31。
唐‧玄奘譯,《攝大乘論釋》,《大正藏》冊31。

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