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印順導師對禪宗的衡定

The Evaluation to Zen-School by Master Yin Shun

Abstracts


印順導師有《中國禪宗史》大作一部,涉及對整個禪宗歷史與思想的詳細討論,另有《淨土與禪》書中有兩篇討論禪宗的文章,前後意旨一貫。本文之作,即是針對兩書中導師對禪宗思想的意見做整體性的反思。導師之禪學研究,可以說是有針對性的,亦即是針對胡適之先生所寫的禪學研究觀點,進行反駁。胡適認為是神會建構了整個《壇經》的架構,且以慧能弘揚《金剛經》而與原來達摩祖師付法的《楞伽經》精神有別。導師的意見是,《金剛經》即是般若學經典,《楞伽經》和達摩的「二入四行」都是有般若思維的經典,且有《維摩詰經》的素材,且《金剛經》的般若學宗旨,一直貫串在道信以後的傳承,因此並非直到神會才突出《金剛經》的宗旨,以《金剛經》的簡潔及功德觀,自然是般若學的精神旨歸,因此並無《金剛經》和《楞伽經》宗旨轉換的問題。更重要的是,導師認為,禪宗後期確實形成中華禪風,但這是法融牛頭禪的遺續發展,其遺風仍留在曹溪門內,以石頭宗代表,但是,再接續的發展,許多不重儀軌體制的作風,就是道家之風,因此可以說是道家化了的禪宗,也就是中華禪的出現。依據這一條主軸的線索,本文之作,檢討了如來藏思想的衡定意見、心學性學別異的貞定、形上學與工夫論的不同進路、道家與中華禪的關涉等問題,有所認同亦有質疑之處。

Keywords

禪宗 印順 胡適 慧能 神會

Parallel abstracts


Master Yin Shun has a book The History of Zen School, relates to detailed discussion of the history and thought of the whole Zen School. He also has another two paper involved with the discussion about the Zen School in another book The Pure Land and Zen. The theoretical opinion in these two works is coherent. In this work, the author will give a comprehensive reflection to Master Yin Shun's evaluation about Zen School in these two books. The purpose for Master Yin Shun to study Zen School Is clear, which is aiming to counter Doctor Hu Shih's studying point about Zen School. Hu Shih take the position that the whole theoretical structure of Platform Sutra of Hui Neng was constructed by Master Shen Hui, and Hui Neng carry forward The Diamond Suture is different from The Lankavatara Sutra in its spirit inherited from Master Da Mo. Master Yin Shun's opinion is that: The Diamond Suture is belonging to Prajna series Suture, and The Lankavatara Suture and Master Da Mo's Two way and four method are both sutures in Prajna series and materials from The Vimalakirti Sutra. And he also thinks that the Prajna series doctrine in The Diamond Suture is continually been spread in the Zen School history from after the forth Master Dao Shin. It is not just by Master Shen Hui then The Diamond Suture been important. The simple character and the merit opinion of Diamond Suture make it must be in the series of The Prajna Suture, therefore there will not have the thing that the history of the Zen school transforms its doctrine from The Diamond Suture to The Lankavatara Suture. More important is Master Yin Shun thinks that the later Zen School forms a Chinese characteristic Zen style, but this is the development of Master Fa Rong's Niu Tou Zen, and which is still kept in Master Hui Neng's Tso Xi Zen been represented by Shi Tou Zen. The later development in Shi Tou Zen exists lots of behaviors that is quite unrespect traditional Buddha's ritual, Master Yin Shun thinks that this is what Daoist style is and is therefore Daoist Zen then which is just Chinese Zen. According to this main clue, this paper review the opinion about the evaluation of Ru Lai Zang, the different between Xin Xue and Xing Xue, the diverse approach from metaphysis and Practical theory, the connection in Daoist philosophy and Chinese Zen. Some of those are confirmed but the other of those rejected.

Parallel keywords

Zen School Yin Shun Hu Shih Hui Neng Shen Hui

References


印順(1992)。中國禪宗史。台北:正聞出版社。
印順(1992)。淨土與禪。台北:正聞出版社。
杜保瑞(2013)。中國哲學方法論。台北:臺灣商務印書館。
杜保瑞()。

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