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國姓井母題分析-以豐田村國姓井為例

Analysis of the Motives of Guoxing Wells: A Case Study of the Guoxing Well of Fengtian Village

Abstracts


插劍成泉的故事在台灣以鄭成功的大甲國姓井最為著名。雖然劍井並非大甲特有的故事,在中國其他地區也可找到類似的故事;然而在台灣的劍井故事特別與鄭成功有關,不論是在大甲或是在雲林縣大埤鄉豐田村的國姓井傳說都具備了十分相似的母題結構。本文將提出民間文學母題「有機結構」的概念,將國姓井類型故事的母題視為隸屬於同一結構,且彼此相互關聯的單位,而凡是屬於同一有機結構的母題都可能因為內在的關聯而在不同傳說之間互相吸納且發展。本文將國姓井類故事的重要母題歸納為:劍、井泉、疫病,情節則大致包含將軍帶兵乏水,插劍成泉/井,而泉/井水可以治療瘟疫等階段。文中將深入考察這三個主要母題,並兼及相關的武將軍事性質以及蛇龍與瘟疫的關係,經由縝密的文獻爬梳,追索其母題的內在性質,並建構三者之間在民俗民間文學上複合的有機結構。最後本文將以近代的傳說與清代記錄的傳說相比較,驗證有機結構的可適用性。

Keywords

鄭成功 瘟疫 傳說 有機結構

Parallel abstracts


The story type that contains the plot of stabbing a sword to draw water has its most famous example in the Guoxing Well in Dajia, Taiwan. Sword well is not an exclusive story of Dajia, the same type of stories can be found many places in China. However, the sword well stories in Taiwan have a special affinity with the legends of Cheng Chengkong (Lord Guoxing). Whether in Dajia or in the Fengtian village in Dapi, Yunlin, the legends of Guoxing well share very similar motif structure. In this article, I shall propose the idea of ”organic structure of motives” that all motives of the Guoxing Well legends belong to one organic structure and each motif relates to the rest of the same structure in one way or another. All motives under the same organic structure could absorb or develop into another legend given their internal relations.The important motives of the Guoxing Well stories are sword, well/ spring, and epidemic. Its plot basically consists of the following parts: a general whose troops were in desperate need of drinking water, he stabbed his sword into earth and drew spring water that later became a well, the well water then was considered to have healing power. I shall analyze the three motives in depth and include in the discussion the relating issues of military officers and the connection between snake/ dragon and epidemic. Through textual analysis, I shall trace the original nature of the motives and construct the composite organic structure of the three motives in folklore and folk literature. Finally, I shall use a much later, contemporary legend and compare it with the Qing gazetteer records to verify the validity of the organic structure.

Parallel keywords

Cheng Chengkong sword well epidemic legend organic structure

References


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