Children obesity and it's related problems have become an epidemic disease and have raised significant attention from Governments throughout the world. The purpose of this study was to investigate how children's characteristics of sports participation influence the children's Body Mass Index. The children participants in this study were the students of the fifth and sixth grade enrolled in Taipei municipal elementary schools at the second semester in 2008. The survey was conducted in October 2008. 320 questionnaires were distributed and 314 questionnaires were returned of which 303 questionnaires were valid. -the valid rate was 96.5%. Reliability, item analysis, one-way ANOVA, Scheffe's, post hoc two-step cluster analysis, discriminant analysis was applied to data-analysis. In the study, it is proved that the internal psychological factors, social support and sports behaviors did make pronounced influence on primary school students' body mass index. Accordingly, results of this study would provide referable guidance to related parents and teachers when drawing up physical fitness related activities and courses in the future.