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詩筆與史筆:論蔣士銓《一片石》雜劇的詩體淵源及其歷史反思

Historical Reflection and Poetic Elements in Jiang Shiquan's Yipian shi

Abstracts


「戲曲詩歌化」是有清一代文人劇的常見現象。對此,論者往往從題材內容和語言風格的角度加以探討,卻較少涉及形式範疇。本文通過考察清代戲曲大家蔣士銓(1725-1785)的雜劇《一片石》,探討清代戲曲(曲體)與古典詩歌(詩體)交涉互融的情況。相對於字面、修辭或典故的相彷彿,《一片石》與「懷古詩」傳統的聯繫,更體現在其精神意蘊和結構形式。一方面,此劇承繼了「懷古詩」著力抒情的審美特徵以及其敘事模式(如「登山臨水」、「訪謁祠廟」和「憑弔墓塚」)。另一方面,此劇又突破了「懷古詩」相對單一的視角,轉而借助不同敘述者的視點,反覆追懷弔唁,從而形成深重的歷史感。本文進一步指出,《一片石》之撰作,不僅發揮著傳播先賢事跡、建構地方記憶的功能,更是蔣士銓調解、安頓自己內心的過程。得益於戲曲文體的體制特點,劇作呈現出深刻的歷史反思,也寄寓著劇作家個人對道德與人生、歷史與書寫等命題的探詢。

Keywords

蔣士銓 清代戲曲 懷古詩 詩體 歷史劇

Parallel abstracts


The poeticization of classical Chinese drama was a prominent feature of Qing literati dramas. Jiang Shiquan 蔣士銓 (1725-1785), a famous late-imperial Chinese playwright, poeticized his plays. Focusing on Jiang's play Yipian shi 一片石, this article examines the generic integration and tension in the work. I argue that the lyricism and narrative structure of this play originates from the poetic tradition of "Meditation on the Past" (huaigu懷古). Yet it also transcends huaigu poetry, which often adopts a single person perspective, by repeatedly meditating on and lamenting the past through the perspectives of different narrators. The creation of this dense historical memory serves a dual purpose: it not only helps construct local memories and spreads the reputation of local historical figures but also settles the playwright's mind. The stylistic characteristics of drama, in other words, carve out a space for the profound reflection on such issues as history, morality, life, writing, and their interrelationships.

References


孔丘明傳,杜預注,孔穎達正義:《春秋左傳正義》,北京:北京大學出版社,2000年。
孔尚任著,王季思、蘇寰中、楊德平合注:《桃花扇》,北京:人民文學出版社,1982年。
毛亨傳,鄭玄箋,孔穎達疏:《毛詩正義》,北京:北京大學出版社,2000年。
王夫之:《明詩評選》,收入船山全書編輯委員會編校:《船山全書》第14冊,長沙:嶽麓書社,1996年。
王勃撰,蔣清翊註:《王子安集注》,上海:上海古籍出版社,1995年。

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