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漢藏曆史關係的新思考:一個反思性歷史研究

New Thinking on the Sino-Tibetan Historical Relations: A Reflexive Study of Histories

Abstracts


本文旨在說明,我們可以透過對「朵康」-青藏高原東緣-之地與人的研究,而對漢藏間的歷史與文化關係有一種新理解。自漢代以來,華夏便視這一地域人群爲「羌」,並認爲他們是我族邊緣的一部分。唐代以來當吐蕃及藏傳佛教勢力擴張至青藏高原東緣時,古藏族(吐蕃)知識菁英也將青藏高原東緣之部落人群視爲我族邊緣的一部分。在漢藏皆視之爲我族又鄙視這些邊緣人群的情況下,自古以來經由文化攀附本地人群深受漢化、藏化影響,在文化、宗教等方面皆呈現由漢到藏(由東而西)或由藏到漢(由西而東)的漸變光譜,因此成爲漢藏的一個模糊邊緣。借著這個例子,本文提出一種反思性歷史研究。不同於以「過去」來界定與爭論群體邊界的傳統歷史研究,亦不同于解構國族與相關邊界的後現代史學,反思性歷史研究希望藉由瞭解邊緣與邊界的形成過程,爲各個核心主體帶來反思性認知,以消彌或緩和對立與衝突。

Parallel abstracts


The present article argues that a new thinking on the Sino-Tibetan historical relations can build upon a critical study of the 「histories」 of the people, the so called Khams or the Qiang, who inhabit in an area along the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau between the Han Chinese and the Tibetans. The ancient Chinese have constructed a history of a 「stigmatic hero」 to illustrate the Qiang's inferior origins and peripheral characteristics. The same peripheral status of the people in the same area was expressed by ancient Tibetan literati in a totally different history, a history started from a group of brothers among whom the genetic ancestors of the people were 「two youngest brothers.」 Thus for both the ancient Chinese and Tibetans the tribal people along the eastern fringe of the Tibetan Plateau were their 「family,」 but were also「the black sheep of the family.」 For the people sandwiched between the Han Chinese and Tibetans have either accepted histories chronicled by the Tibetan historians and became the Khamba, or accepted histories written by the Han historians and became the Qiang, yet within local context they asserted a kind of history that started from a group of ancestral brothers to claim that rival ethnic or tribal groups may expel or fight each other while maintaining that they came out from the same womb. This article concludes by emphasizing the importance of reflexive study of history to smoothing relationships between human groups that are shaped and divided by master「histories」.

References


漢司馬遷(1959)。史記。北京:中華書局。
漢班固(1962)。漢書。北京:中華書局。
唐魏徵(1973)。隋書。北京:中華書局。
南朝宋范曄(1965)。後漢書。北京:中華書局。
元脫脫(1977)。宋史。北京:中華書局。

Cited by


朱文惠(2013)。現代康區藏傳佛教寺院經濟研究〔博士論文,國立中正大學〕。華藝線上圖書館。https://www.airitilibrary.com/Article/Detail?DocID=U0033-2110201613550867

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