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The Design and Bundle Adjustment of a Portable Panoramic Image Mapping System



Parallel abstracts

The car-based mobile mapping systems (MMSs) are usually equipped with the navigation systems and the image sensors. These car-based systems can be used to gather the spatial information and to generate the maps efficiently, and they can be applied to collecting the spatial information of large areas. However, the portable mobile mapping systems have a lot of advantages, such as convenience of portability, versatility of mapping, and low cost. These portable systems can be used in remote areas that can't be accessed by car-based MMSs. This paper proposes a Portable Panoramic Image Mapping System (PPIMS) which can be used to collect 3D spatial information quickly. The PPIMS is not very heavy to carry, and it is also very efficient for mapping and positioning. This system can be applied to mapping of remote areas, disaster areas, mountains and forest areas. The PPIMS is equipped with six cameras, a GPS receiver and a platform. The platform is very easy to carry and operate. The six cameras are rigidly mounted on the platform to capture panoramic images, and the GPS can provide the position information of the platform. The interior orientation of each camera has been calibrated in advance, and then the relative position and orientation relationship between cameras has been calibrated in an indoor calibration field where hundreds of photogrammetric targets are well distributed along the walls, ceiling, and floor. Finally, the relative position relationship between the platform center and the six cameras are calibrated in an outdoor calibration field. The platform orientations of the stations can be calculated even without any control point, and then the exterior orientation elements of each image can be determined. Following this, the coordinates of the object points can be computed using the intersection method. The bundle adjustment procedure for the PPIMS is used to figure out the platform orientation. In this procedure, the observations include the image coordinates of the tie points and the coordinates of the platform center of different stations. Therefore, the relative position and orientation relationship between the cameras and the GPS are constraint conditions. According to the experimental results, the platform orientation of the stations can be calculated successfully even without any control point. Using the check points to evaluate the positioning accuracy, the RMSD of the coordinate differences is better than 3 cm, but the systematic error of Y coordinate is about 6 cm. On the other hand, when three control points are used, the systematic error can be improved, the average coordinate difference is not greater than 1 cm, and the RMSD of each coordinate difference is always better than 0.5 cm. Using only a few control points, the precision of station orientation is better, and the accuracies of positioning also can be improved significantly. The PPIMS is also used to generate a 3D building model, thus the versatility and convenience of this equipment has been demonstrated in this experiment.


Ellum, C. M., 2001, The development of a backpack mobile mapping system, UCGE Report NO. 20101, Department of Geomatics Engineering, University of Calgary.