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從「生命教育」角度省思-大學通識「正念」課程的建構與執行

The Reflection from Perspective of Life Education - The Design and Execution of General Education Course "Mindfulness" in University

Abstracts


喬.卡巴金於1979年創建「正念減壓療法」(Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction,簡寫為「MBSR」),將源自佛教的正念禪修融入現代醫學體系,引導人們不帶批判地覺察、專注於當下,也不隨紛飛的念頭起舞,這是一種「安住於當下」的生活態度。2002年,辛德.西格爾、馬克.威廉斯、約翰.蒂斯岱在「MBSR」及認知心理學的基礎上,發展出「正念認知療法」(Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy,簡寫為「MBCT」)。時至今日,正念療法已廣泛應用於醫護、諮商、教育、企業、監獄、運動……等領域,影響層面極大。同樣地,正念練習的成效及運用層面也越來越受到研究者的關注,在教育現場,也有越來越多的研究發現,正念練習對於提升學生的專注力、覺察力、情緒管理、人際溝通……等,都有正面積極的意義。諸多研究中,對於課程的討論是較少的,因此,筆者此文即以整學期的課程運作為例,在五個學期、兩門正念課程的授課歷程中,以「生命教育」為切入角度,省思大學正念課程的建構與執行,從教學理念、課程目標、單元設計、學生正念練習紀錄寫作,乃至教師正念精神的具身體現……等面向進行省思,進而提出建議。本文之寫作,不以文獻探討、理論說明或理論建構為論述重心,取而代之的是教學現場及學生學習成果的省思。此文拋磚引玉,期待有志於此者,共同為推廣正念教育而努力。

Parallel abstracts


In 1979, Jon Kabat-Zinn built up "Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, MBSR", which mix the mindfulness meditation from Buddhism with modern medical science, and guides people to the life attitude of shamatha, which means concentrating on the present living without criticism and distraction. In 2002, Zindel Segal, Mark Williams, and John Teasdale developed "Mindfulness- Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT)" on the basis of MBSR. Until now, the mindfulness therapy has been broadly applied to various field like medicine, consultation, education, business, jail, exercising, and so on, with expanding impact. The effectiveness of mindfulness practicing application is gradually getting attention from researchers. Also, there are more and more studies revealing that mindfulness practicing has positive impact on improving the students' concentration, perception, emotional management, interpersonal communication...etc. However, there is less discussion of the course itself. Thus, with five-semester and two-course experience, the author proposed the suggestion about the course designing from the perspective of life education including the course objective, schedule designing, teaching activities, writing practicing, and so on, to reflect on the development of college mindfulness course. This thesis focuses on the reflection from teaching scene and the outcome of students' learning instead of literature review or theory interpretation, in the hope of encouraging the enthusiasts to contribute to the mindfulness education together.

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