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生物環境影響評估

Bioenvironmental Impact Assessment

Abstracts


生物多樣性之調查與研究為環境管理指標研究之基礎,而生物環境影響評估則為現階段臺灣環境保育最需要努力的方向。依據環境影響評估法第四條規定:「環境影響評估係指開發行為或政府政策對環境包括生活環境、自然環境、社會環境及經濟、文化、生態等可能影響之程度及範圍,事前以科學、客觀、綜合之調查、預測、分析及評定,提出環境管理計畫,並公開說明及審查。」其中生態影響,係指生物及其覓食、棲息及繁殖環境,其群體在它們的群落與環境之組成結構,因為環境改變而造成的差異。其中,空間及時間改變,造成系統中生物競爭和合作,最後達到一種動態不平衡關係;強勢的生物會主宰整個系統,弱勢物種造成滅絕,此不平衡關係和當時系統間生物所處的環境、營養和物種數量有關。生物影響評估,應評量生態系統、物種和遺傳項目。評估方式以種群的大小、結構改變及累積性環境改變過程(包括棲地生物、地理及化學現象)為環境評估、調查及監測的基礎工作。因此,建立生物環境影響評估調查方法、審議規範及生態環境資料庫,並進行多樣性調查、瀕危生物名單界定、評鑑瀕危生物等級、評估棲地損害程度及進行生物環境專家諮詢,以有效進行整合性環境影響評估,為生態環境奠定永續發展的基礎。

Parallel abstracts


Biodiversity surveys and research are the basis for environmental management from indicators, while bioenvironmental impact assessment is the most crucial approach for Taiwan's environmental conservation at current stage. According to Article Four of the Environmental Impact Assessment Act: "Environmental impact assessment means an environmental management plan based on scientific, objective and comprehensive surveys, forecasting, analyses and evaluations conducted prior to project implementation in order to determine the degree and scope of the potential impact of development activity or government policy on the environment (including the living environment, natural environment and social environment), economy, culture and ecology, and the public explanation and review of such a plan". Among them, ecological impact refers to the influences on the creatures whose foraging, habitats, and breeding environments, as well as their community sizes. The composition of the species turns variations which was led an impact by environmental changes. Among them, spatio-temporal changes, resulting in biological competition and cooperation in ecosystems, finally achieve a dynamic imbalance. Meanwhile, strong creatures could dominate the entire system, vulnerable species, thus, could be leading to become local extinction. Therefore, this imbalance would be related to their in-situ environment, the composition of species, as well as their nutrition status. Bio-impact assessments should assess ecosystems, species, and genetic projects. This assessment approaches should be based on population size, structural changes, and cumulative environmental processes (i.e., habitat sizes, geography, and chemical information) as the basis for environmental evaluation, investigation, and monitoring. Therefore, we tried to establish several approaches to benefit bioenvironmental impact assessment, encouraged government to review specifications and ecological environment database, conducted surveys, defined the list of endangered species, evaluated the levels of endangered species, assessed the extent of damage to habitats, and conducted bioenvironmental experts' consults to effectively carry out integrated assessment provides toward sustainable development within healthy ecosystems.

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