透過您的圖書館登入
IP:44.210.99.209
  • Journals

瓦寺土司的祖源-一個對歷史、神話與鄉野傳說的邊緣研究

The Origins of Wasi Tusi: A Border Study of Histories, Myths, and Legends

Abstracts


1929年春,年輕的邊疆調查者黎光明造訪岷江上游的瓦寺土司家族,這家族自明代以來歷代受中國之封。黎光明在文獻中得知這家族的英雄祖先「歷史」,同時這歷史也是土司所宣稱的家族史。另外從一位土司的弟弟口中,他得知有關本家族起源的一則「傳說」,幾個漢人移民弟兄,其一成為土司的祖先。稍晚幾年,另一位邊疆調查者馬長壽又在本地蒐集到一則有關土司祖源的「神話」,根據此說土司為瓊鳥卵生之子。於是在此時此地,此一家族內的三弟兄對於本家族祖源便有三種不同之說。在本文中,我視此現象為一邊緣或邊界現象,相關祖源文本則為邊緣或邊界文本。分析這現象及文本,我認為它們是兩個歷史文化過程造成之邊緣產物。一是帶來「英雄祖先歷史心性」與相關文類如方志、族譜等的漢化過程,一是帶來「瓊鳥產卵為祖歷史心性」的藏化過程;兩者在清代民初時期匯集於岷江上游,而本地,因其特殊環境與人類生態,原來一直盛行著「弟兄祖先歷史心性」。夾在漢、藏文化之間,瓦寺家族不只擁有三種祖源歷史,而此三種歷史分屬三種歷史心性。20世紀早期從事邊疆調查的中國學者,他們自身也是「英雄祖先歷史心性」之產物,因此他們相信瓦寺土司之祖源為一來自藏區的英雄,相信此說為真實歷史;相對的,土司祖源始於「幾弟兄」或「瓊鳥」之說,則被他們視為傳說或神話。他們的邊疆調查,他們對本地歷史與文化的再現式書寫與詮釋,事實上是華夏邊緣再造的工作,這也是近代中國國族建構工程的一部分。藉着歷史心性與文類概念,本文強調近代中國國族建構之延續性基礎及其變遷。

Parallel abstracts


In the spring of 1929, young frontiers-investigator Guangming Li went to visit Wasi Tusi, a local chief in the upper Min River valley whose family had been bestowed the title by China since the Ming dynasty. Li acquired a heroic 'history' concerning the origin of the Wasi family from achieves, and the history was confirmed by the contemporary Tusi himself. Li also acquired a 'legend' of some Han brothers told by one of the Tusi's brother concerning the Han origin of the family. A few years later, another investigator, Changshou Ma, gained the third version of the family's genesis history, that was, in his words, a ¡myth¡ about the ancestral Qiong eagle, from a lama who was also the Tusi's brother. Thus three brothers of the Wasi family had declared three 'histories' concerning the origins of the family. In this article I consider these as frontier/border phenomena, and the related genesis texts, border texts. Analyzing these border phenomena and the texts, I suggest that they were products of two major historic-cultural trends: the Sinicizing process which brought in the historical mentality of heroic ancestors and the related genres such as geographical gazette and clan genealogy, and the Tibetanizing process which brought in the historical mentality of the ancestral Qiong eagle. In the Qing and the first Republic era, both cultural trends reached the upper Min River valley, where, for its special natural environments and human ecology, the historical mentality of ancestral brothers was essential to its inhabitants. Therefore, bordering between the Han and the Tibetan cultures, the Wasi family not only owned three 'histories' concerning the origins of their ancestors, but also the histories contained three historical mentalities. Chinese investigators of the early 20^(th) century were themselves the products of the historical mentality of heroic ancestors, thus they considered the Wasi family genesis text that started with a hero was a true history, and those started with 'brothers' or 'the Qiong eagle' were legend or myth. Their frontiers-investigations, and their representations and interpretations over natives¡ histories and cultures, were actually the works of Chinese frontier/border-refashioning that was, again, a part of the China's nation-building project. With the concepts of historical mentality and genre, I emphasize both the continuing and changing aspects of the nation-building in modern China.

Parallel keywords

historical mentality genre text border study history and myth

Read-around