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清代臺灣地權分配與客家產權-以屏東平原為例(1700-1900)

Land Distribution and the Hakka Property Rights in the Pingdong Plains during the Qing, 1700-1900

Abstracts


臺灣於1683年由清朝接管之後,不到半個世紀,便由邊區轉成為東南沿海新興糧倉。臺灣快速恢復生產秩序的原因之一,在於清初政府鼓勵「有力之家」拓墾草地,開闢水田,增加米糖生產。許多寄居臺南府城紳商富戶運用官僚網絡關係,申請開墾執照,前往偏遠屏東平原佔墾大片草埔,形成大型墾戶。這些墾戶招聘大量佃戶,包括粵籍客佃,從事闢土開田工程,並運用私人管事,代為管理佃戶,監督納租。本文目的之一即在分析曾在屏東平原佔墾草地的所謂不在地業主,如何建立租佃關係,並協助維持早期社會經濟秩序。其次,本文還討論了不在地業主控制下的大量佃戶,如何利用開墾永佃,積累初期資本,轉化變成田主階層。本文將舉兩個客籍佃戶轉成田主的例證,說明客家產權的形成過程,並分析客家社會公共田業組織特別發達的現象。

Parallel abstracts


Within a half century after its seizure by the Qing dynasty in 1683, Taiwan had been transformed from an island on the frontier into the granary of southeastern China. A key cause of this rapid recovery of agrarian production was government policy. The Qing encouraged powerful families to reclaim wasteland, construct rice paddies, and expand production of rice and sugar. Elite landowning families of Tainan prefecture used their bureaucratic connections to obtain reclamation licenses that entitled them to assert control over large expanses of wasteland in the remote Pingdong area. They negotiated agreements with large numbers of tenants, including some Hakka from Guangdong, to do the actual work of reclamation. Private managers were hired to supervise the tenants and collect rents. The first goal of this essay is to analyze the process of land reclamation in the Pingdong plains by absentee landlords, by describing how these landlords established rent-exchange relations and contributed to the maintenance of the early socio-economic order. Second, the paper explores how tenants initially subordinate to absentee landlords were able to use their rights of permanent tenancy to accumulate capital and transform themselves into a new landlord stratum. The paper uses two cases of Hakka tenants to discuss the process of formation of Hakka ownership rights, and analyzes the reasons for the high level of corporate property in Hadda society.

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