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歷史與文化-對於「歷史人類學」之我見

The Formation and Development of Historical Anthropology

Abstracts


就人類學發展的脈絡來看,歷史人類學的形成與發展,主要是20世紀80年代以後的事。從薩林斯建立文化如何界定歷史的研究課題開始,到什麼是歷史事件、歷史性所指涉的歷史意識與再現的研究架構,及歷史性與時間分類及社會記憶的關係,到歷史文類的探討等爭辯與討論,正反映歷史人類學研究與理論的發展方向與成果。這結果不僅造成整個人類學研究的歷史化趨勢而有其廣泛的影響,更因其研究從什麼是歷史的問題切入而能凸顯出被研究文化更深一層的特色,對人類學的文化概念及人類學知識的開展上,實有其重要而獨特的貢獻。如此也提供未來人類學與歷史學重新結合而創造更高層次之新知識的空間與可能性。

Parallel abstracts


In the history of anthropology, the initial conception and development of historical anthropology has occurred mostly since the 1980s. Sahlins was the first to identify the question of how culture defines history as a major research topic of historical anthropology. Subsequent discussions of the nature of the historical event; the way historicity shapes research into historical consciousness and representation; the interaction of historicity, the cultural construction of time (especially past time) and social memory, and the genres of historical representation, are suggestive of the overall development of research and theory in historical anthropology, and of their contribution to the larger field of anthropology. This contribution does not consist only of greater attention to historicization, which has been the most important and extensive influence on general anthropological research. Research into the question "What is history?" has also led to important new insights into the meaning of culture, making significant contributions to anthropological understandings of culture and anthropological knowledge more broadly. It also offers the possibility of integrating anthropology and history in new ways in the future.

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