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地方社會中的族群話語與儀式傳統-以閩江下游地區的「水部尚書」信仰為中心的分析

Group Discourse and Ritual Tradition in Local Society: An Analysis of the Cult of the Minister of Water in the Lower Reaches of the Minjiang River

Abstracts


「水部尚書」信仰是流行於閩江下游地區水上世界的主要民間信仰之一。這一信仰及其廟宇和儀式體系的形成過程,是在明清以來地方社會與國家制度變遷的背景中展開的。由於其神化的語言多來自於「水上人家」及「走水」商人,而其神廟的建立又與陸上社會的社區權力密不可分,因此,「水∕陸」、「水上人∕岸上人」、「曲蹄仔∕商人」等社會分類與身份認同的表達與轉換,就成爲貫穿於整個廟宇與儀式傳統發展脈絡的族群話語,並呈現出區域性特徵以及以參與權爲核心的一系列等級格局。「岸上人」與「水上人」在象徵性資源的爭奪中不斷自我定義和被定義,並在地方性傳統的影響下策略性地進行着靈活的文化實踐;同時,地方社會本身也在這種實踐中相應發生着變化,使得以「迎船」、「迎神」及「扒龍舟」等儀式傳統爲紐帶的文化網絡的建構始終具有內在活力。在這一過程中,一方面,族群的界線和話語不斷地被創造和表達;另一方面,地方社會的各種構成要素,如家族、地方精英、生計模式以及國家制度等等,也在不同時期被不同人群揉進了自己的歷史和文化實踐之中,共同塑造地方社會中的多元結構。

Parallel abstracts


Since the Ming dynasty, the temple and ritual networks of the Minister of Water (Shuibu shangshu), a cult popular among the boatdwellers living on the lower reaches of Minjiang river in Fujian, has evolved in the context of changing institutions of the state and local society. Most of the cult's apotheosizing rhetoric originated among the boat people and river merchants, but the construction of its temples was inseperable from power relations in local land-dwelling society. As a result, certain modes of social classification and identity formation, such as water/ land, boat-dweller/ land-dweller, "koleang" (a derogatory term for boat dwellers)/ merchant, have become discourses of ethnicity through the history of the temples and their ritual networks. These are expressed through the formation of hierarchies based on rights of ritual participation. A system of root and branch temples oriented around five Ministers of Water has emerged in the area. Both the self-identity and the externally imposed identity of the boat people have been defined and redefined in the continuous contest for symbolic resources. The boat people's strategic practice has been influenced by the dominant traditions of local society, which have in turn been shaped by these cultural practices. As a result, the cultural networks articulated by such rituals as boat processions (yingchuan), deity processions (yingshen) and Dragon-boat races have evolved dynamically. Elites among the boat people who have affiliated with Daoist priests and the literati served as the "cultural agents" in this process.

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