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清代「淮粵之爭」中的邊界

Border Disputes between Lianghuai and Liangguang in the Qing Dynasty

Abstracts


近年來,「邊界」問題在學術界有相當熱烈的討論。本文以清代鹽政中的「淮粵之爭」為例,從歷史學的角度回應學術界對「邊界」的討論。「淮粵之爭」是嘉慶、道光年間兩廣鹽區與兩淮鹽區之間圍繞着鹽區邊界等問題而展開的,以江西、湖南、廣東三省交界地區為中心的衝突。兩淮鹽區與兩廣鹽區之所以在這裡產生衝突,是因為兩淮鹽區一直認為兩廣鹽商在此邊界地區走私食鹽,侵入淮界,導致淮鹽銷售受阻,妨礙兩淮鹽區鹽課的完納。衝突過程中,鹽區邊界成為各種勢力借重的政策性概念,兩淮鹽區力圖守界,兩廣鹽區力圖破界,地方官、鹽商均在此過程中呈現出複雜歧異的邊界觀念,並最終使王朝明晰地將邊界區域化,展現出傳統社會邊界的另一種面相。

Keywords

清代 鹽政 邊界 兩淮 兩廣

Parallel abstracts


In recent years, the theme of the "border" has become a much discussed topic in academic circles. Using a series of border disputes between the Lianghuai and Liangguang salt-districts, the so-called "Huai-Yue zhi zheng", as a case study, this article introduces a historical perspective to the discussion. The disputes broke out between the salt districts of Liangguang (modern day Guangdong-Guangxi) and Lianghuai (modern day Huainan-Huaibei) in the early nineteenth century. The disputes centered on the demarcation of salt district boundaries in the border region between Jiangxi, Hunan and Guangdong. People in Lianghuai believed that salt merchants from Liangguang were smuggling salt in this border region, cutting into the sales volume of Lianghuai salt, and making it impossible for Lianghuai to fulfill its salt tax obligations. In this quarrel, different actors deployed the concept of the border in support of their interests. Lianghuai authorities sought to defend the border, while Liangguang sought to transcend it. Local officials and salt merchants presented complex and different notions of borders. Ultimately the state firmly demarcated the regional borders, expressing yet another view of the meaning of borders in traditional Chinese society.

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