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「割都分治」之下-明末清初潮州屬縣都圖爭端的初步分析

The Contradiction of Territory in Chaozhou District from the Late Ming to the Early Qing

Abstracts


明代中後期,在與「山海盜賊」的長期角力中,王朝政府出於「弭盜安民」之需陸續在粵東地區調整政區、分置新縣。已有的研究從權力控制與區域開發的層面出發探討這一時段以「割都分治」為主線的政區變動,不自覺地在「征伐∕開發」的簡單因果邏輯中連綴史料,容易以長遠效益掩蓋特定時段中的複雜社會樣貌,尤其是「割都分治」之下的賦役運作實態。本文考察明末清初廣東潮州府屬潮陽、普寧二縣都圖爭奪的實例,從一側面探討政區變動下地方社會的複雜情勢,揭示王朝政府置縣的「弭盜安民」設想如何與州縣之間的地方利益發生矛盾、爭奪財賦來源如何最後釀成了長期的地方衝突。通過描述都圖爭端的始末,本文嘗試探討地方衝突得以發生的制度基礎,即明代里甲編制自身隱藏的「靈活性」以及人戶與田地的「結構分離」,從而希冀進一步理解在具體的地域社會場景中,制度性矛盾與政區變動之間的深層複雜關係。

Keywords

潮州 政區變動 里甲制

Parallel abstracts


Responding to political and social disturbances in eastern Guangdong in the mid to late Ming, the imperial state made a series of adjustments to the local administrative structure, creating new counties in order to strengthen political authority. Previous research has explored this process from the perspectives of political control and regional development, but this has often meant reading the evidence through an oversimplistic logic of pacification and development, neglecting the complexity of local society, and in particular the role of changes to the taxation system. This paper is a case study of conflicts concerning the sub-county administrative structure of two counties in Chaozhou in late Ming and early Qing, demonstrating the complexities in local society that underlay these political changes, the contradictions that arose between imperial efforts to strengthen control and local interests, and the way disputes over control of tax resources ultimately generated local conflict. Through a detailed account of the process of administrative restructuring, the paper identifies the systemic causes of local conflict, specifically the internal flexibility of the Ming "lijia" corvee system and the "structural split" between population and land registrations, in order to illustrate the close connections between institutional contradictions and political change.

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