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動亂、國家認同與「客家」文化-一個贛南聚落12-18世紀的變遷史

Turmoil, National Identity and Hakka Culture: The History of a Southern Jiangxi Locale from the 12^(th) to 18^(th) Century

Abstracts


位於贛南西部的營前古鎮,宋代是「峒寇」出沒之地。通過官方的教化和地方勢力自身努力,這裡在明代開始出現了與官府關係密切、以士紳為主導的宗族組織。隨着清初動亂和流民的進入,營前土客互相屠殺甚慘,土著宗族受到沉重打擊,不得不和日益壯大並被官方承認的流民共處一地。清代中期以後,營前不再有大規模的土客衝突,呈現出更為複雜的社會結構和矛盾,並形成其獨特的地域文化。營前由南宋的「峒」轉變成明代的「蔡家城」所在地,是官方教化推廣的結果。清代土、客兩大族群產生衝突則是以大量流民進入山區和接受官府招撫為背景的。正是在此基礎上,形成了營前「土」與「客」兩大族群和獨特的地域文化。因此,可以說,營前至今可見的地域文化(一般被視為「客家」文化),乃是宋以來國家認同意識推廣和山區開發的產物,而動亂則是地域社會力量重組的表現。營前所揭示出來的「客家」文化形成過程,在宋至清初才得以開發的閩、粵、贛邊界山區應當有一定的普遍性。

Keywords

江西 客家 國家認同

Parallel abstracts


In the Song dynasty, Yingqian, a region of Southern Jiangxi, was home to people known as the Dong, who had a reputation for banditry. By the Ming dynasty, the literati elite of Yingqian had organized lineages which maintained good relations with the state. In the early Qing, social turmoil and an influx of immigrants greatly weakened the local lineages of Yingqian, which had no choice but to accommodate to the presence of these increasingly powerful and government-sanctioned immigrants, known as Hakka. After the mid-Qing, large scale conflict between locals (tuzhu) and Hakka was replaced by a complex social structure and the formation of a distinctive regional culture. Thus the development of Yingqian from the land of the Dong into a place known as the "home of the Cai lineage" in the Ming was the result of state transformative efforts, while in the Qing, conflict between locals and Hakka was the result of the influx of government-supported immigrants to this mountainous area. It was on this foundation that the distinction between local and Hakka and a distinctive local culture emerged. Thus, the local culture that persists to the present, and that is typically described as Hakka culture, is in fact the product of the integration of these mountainous areas into the national polity since the Song. Social turmoil was an expression of the complexities of power in local society that resulted. This process of formation of Hakka culture in Yingqian is probably to some degree also generalizable to the peripheral mountain regions of Fujian, Guangdong and Jiangxi.

Parallel keywords

Jiangxi Province Hakka national identity

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