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姓氏與祖先-雲南洱海地區階序社會的形成

Surnames and Ancestors: The Formation of Hierarchical Society in the Erhai Region, Yunnan

Abstracts


「姓氏」與「祖先」是本文用來思考雲南洱海地區社會結構模式的基本概念。這兩個概念也是地方社會在面對外來力量時的文化調節機制。本文檢視15世紀以前,西南王國南詔大理國(752-1254)的王權基礎、傳說結構及社會內在重組的過程,並且對其姓氏的意義及與之關連的祖先論述,提出解釋。筆者認為洱海地區的姓氏與祖先論述有以下幾個要點:(一)姓氏是王權用以整合社群的政治符號,但依附在姓氏之下的祖先論述則表達不同社群的個別認同;(二)南詔大理國透過佛教的阿育王(Asóka)與觀音傳說來增加姓氏的力量,並以此建立起一套容納不同社群的祖先於佛教的社會組織;(三)在王權的建置過程中,男性祖先身居重要的僧職,進而成為後裔所要追溯的重要始祖,而女性祖先則是男性祖先獲得政治力量的重要來源。簡要來說,南詔大理國由不同社群所共同組成,名家大姓的姓氏組織成為貴族集團的表徵。男性始祖透過佛教治國下的在家僧制成為有法術的僧人,並通過與王室貴族女性聯姻,成為集政治貴族與宗教儀式專家為一體的身份集團;這樣,佛教王權維繫了社會階序的正當性與穩定性。

Parallel abstracts


This article explores the social structure of the Erhai region, Yunnan, in terms of the cultural meanings of surnames and ancestors. The main argument is that these cultural meanings were both a strategic response to external pressure and an integral part of social transformations that occurred in the Nanzhao and Dali kingdoms (752-1254). A review of the textual evidence on the Nanzhao and Dali kingdoms from before the fifteenth century indicates that Buddhist and local legends were central to the codification of royal power in these kingdoms and that surnames played an important role in that codification. First, the state used surnames as political symbols to integrate different social groups, while the discourse of ancestors associated with these surnames continued to express the multiple layers of identity of these surname groups as they were merged together. Second, the state strengthened the power of the surnames by merging their ancestors with the Buddhist legends of Asóka and Guanyin, and integrating Buddhism more generally into state organization. Third, male ancestors were identified as monks who held important state positions, to which their descendants laid claim, while female ancestors were understood as an important source by which male ancestors were able to obtain political power. In sum, whereas the patrilineal features of surnames legitimized state expansion, the matrilineal features of surnames legitimated hierarchy. In the Nanzhao and Dali kingdoms a Buddhist worldview unified the nobility in the political sphere and the ritual specialists in the religious sphere. At the same time this worldview reflected and legitimized a hierarchical social formation that brought together diverse social groupings within a single unified classification of surnames and statuses.

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