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風華再現-清代福建社會風氣的變遷

Re-emergence of a Flowering Society: Economic Prosperity and Social Change in Qing Fujian

Abstracts


本文以方志資料為主,研究道光以前,即較未受西方列強外力影響的清代中期以前,福建(不包括臺灣府)社會風氣的變遷。福建受明清之際的動亂與海禁、遷海的重重打擊,伴隨明代後期以來的繁榮經濟而產生的奢靡社會風氣遂大為改變,「由奢入儉,由華返樸」,「風華不再」。清康熙年間明鄭投降、臺灣納入版圖之後,沿海展界、復界與開海禁,農工商貿易得以復甦發展,無論沿海或內地,社會均開始隨商品經濟、海外貿易的發展轉變。從衣食往行的物質文化開始,競相華侈僭越,然後及於人倫道德關係之精神文化;重演明代從儉約變為奢靡的社會風氣變遷歷史。奢靡社會風氣,在清代中期,即康熙後期到雍正、乾隆、嘉慶年間,「風華再現」。但由於福建的經濟發展不平衡,大部份內地山區和部份沿海的府縣,商品經濟不夠發達;偏遠內地甚至沿海部份社會的風氣仍維持着明清之際「由奢入儉,由華返樸」之後的「俗安樸素」。福建社會,在清代中期再現之繁華奢靡的風華,在時間上的比較不如晚明,空間上的比較則遠不如江南。

Keywords

清代 福建 遷界 社會風氣

Parallel abstracts


This paper uses mainly local gazetteers to consider the changing social climate of Fujian (not including Taiwan) in the early to mid-Qing, the period before Western influence became decisive. The turmoil of the Ming-Qing transition, the prohibition against maritime trade and the evacuation of the coastal areas seriously undermined the prosperous economy of Fujian that had existed in the late Ming period, and this in turn affected the social atmosphere of extravagance that had arisen with economic prosperity. After the surrender of the Zheng family's Ming loyalist regime in the late seventeenth century, the subsequent incorporation of Taiwan, and the re-opening of the coast through the repeal of the coastal evacuation and maritime trade prohibitions, agricultural and industrial production and commerce revived. Both on the coast and in the interior, social practices were transformed by the rise of the commercial economy and foreign trade. These changes began in the realms of material culture and daily life, which became more competitive and extravagant, and were later expressed in ethical and moral dimensions, basically repeating a similar shift from frugality to extravagance that had occurred in the late Ming. This more extravagant social climate in the eighteenth century was seen as a "re-emergence of a flowering society". But owing to uneven economic development, the commercial economy remained insufficiently developed in much of the interior and even in some coastal areas. In the more remote areas of the interior, the social climate associated with the Ming-Qing transition, in which "elegance was replaced by simplicity", persisted. The prosperous social climate of mid-Qing Fujian was thus chronologically more limited than its equivalent in the late Ming and spatially more limited than in the Jiangnan region.

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