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翠亨孫中山故居文物的社會史解讀

Analysis of Historical Documents from the Former Residence of Sun Yat-sen

Abstracts


翠亨孫中山故居紀念館保留了一批孫氏家族文物,以往,學者多利用這些文物研究翠亨孫氏家世源流以及孫中山家庭經濟狀况、孫中山早年生活等,以說明孫中山革命思想產生的背景。然而,利用這些文物,我們還可以對19世紀中後期珠江三角洲鄉村居民的日常生活增加不少了解。例如,從孫氏祖嘗帳冊我們可以了解珠三角一個普通鄉村家族內基金、借貸、祭祀的情况,可以了解當日的物價,也可以了解當日民間的一些簡化字等。孫中山說過,「文之先人躬耕數代」,孫氏家族沒有人得過功名,甚至沒有人受過較多教育,這些文物,更可反映晚清珠三角地區一般鄉村居民的實際生活狀况。由於孫中山後來成為中國歷史上極有地位和影響的人物,關於他的家族有不少口述史料和研究著述,這就使我們解讀這些文物得到很多旁證。

Parallel abstracts


A significant body of historical documents related to the Sun family is preserved at the Sun Yat-sen (Sun Zhongshan) Memorial Hall on the site of his former residence in Cuiheng village, Guangdong. In the past, scholars have used these documents mainly to study the origins of the Sun Yat-sen's family, the economic situation of his household, and the details of his early life, in order to provide the background for his revolutionary ideas. These same documents can also be used to significantly deepen our understanding of the daily life of residents of the Pearl River Delta in the latter part of the nineteenth century. For example, from the account books of the ancestral estate of the Sun family, we can learn much about finance, credit, and sacrificial activities of an ordinary rural lineage. They can also better inform us about local prices, and the simplified forms of characters that were used by the people at that time. Sun Yat-sen once said that his ancestors had been farmers for generations. No member of his lineage passed the official examination; indeed none received much education. These documents can thus help us understand the actual lived experience of the villages of the Pearl River Delta. Because Sun Yat-sen later became an influential figure in Chinese history, there is also a considerable body of oral history and published research on his family. These materials can lend further support to our interpretation of the documents.

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