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塘堰與灌溉:明清時期鄂南鄉村的水利組織與民間秩序-以崇陽縣《華陂堰簿》為中心的考察

Weirs and Irrigation: Water Conservancy and Rural Social Order in Hubei Province during Ming and Qing-A Study of Huapi Weir, Chongyang County

Abstracts


本文以位於湖北省東南部崇陽縣的古老塘堰-華陂堰為中心,在研讀民間水利文書《華陂堰簿》的基礎上,結合該區域的族譜、地方志等相關史料,通過分析灌區社會中圍繞着塘堰所展現的水資源利用、日常組織管理、祭祀活動等歷史場景,特別是移民與土著、田主與佃戶、平民與士紳以及木材運輸與塘堰灌溉之間的一系列矛盾和衝突等,着力探討了明清時期鄂南鄉村基層水利組織的運轉形式及其在處理地方水利糾紛、維護地方秩序方面的功用。文章認為,隨着地方財政危機的加深,地方政府職能萎縮,水利等公共事業逐步由官修轉為民修。民間水利組織在灌區範圍內本着權力與義務直接結合的原則,對於水利設施的興修與維護、水資源的分配與利用等可以起到一定的組織、協調作用。但在發生水利糾紛、特別是與灌區範圍之外的群體發生利益衝突時,國家權威的介入又是必須的。換言之,在國家無力提供公共產品的情形下,地方政權與民間組織之間因應着不同層次的問題而呈現出多元互補的發展趨勢。

Keywords

水利組織 民間秩序 鄂南 華陂堰 明清

Parallel abstracts


Using the "Registers of Huapi Weir", the records of a civilian water conservancy, as well as lineage genealogies and local gazetteers, this paper explores the history of the Huapi weir, Chongyang county. It discusses the role of water conservancy organizations in maintaining social order in rural southern Hubei in Ming and Qing. It considers such factors as local irrigation, the management of water conservancy organizations, and the rituals associated with such organizations. The basic argument is that when the authority of local government weakened due to diminished fiscal capacity, water conservancy gradually shifted from official into private hands. Local society organized itself to deal with such issues as rights and responsibilities associated with access to water, maintenance and repair of water conservancy facilities and distribution of water. But when disputes over water broke out, especially conflicts of interest that transcended the area irrigated by the weir, state authority was needed to resolve the conflict. In other words, even when the state lacked the capacity to provide public goods, a complex mutual inter-dependence between local state power authority and popular organizations developed in response to problems at different levels.

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