透過您的圖書館登入
IP:44.192.20.240
  • Journals

從「客仔」到「義民」-清初南臺灣的移民開發和社會動亂(1680-1740)

From "Visitor" (kezai) to "Loyalist" (yimin): Hakka Settlement and Social Disturbance in Southern Taiwan (1680-1740)

Abstracts


本文旨在探討清代南臺灣六堆地區的「客家」如何在當地定居的歷史過程。筆者首先考察地方文獻和傳說,說明當時被稱為「客」的這群人,因為沒有從官府手中獲得合法的開墾權(墾照),而在移住傳說中特別強調和墾照之間的關聯。他們以佃農的身份在鄉村地區從事土地開發,進而控制土地,威脅到了不在地業主們的權益,以致於被康熙五十年代(1711-1720)的縣級方志描寫成社會動亂之源。康熙六十年(1721)發生的社會動亂事件(朱一貴事件),是他們轉換身份的關鍵事件。除了有一部份人藉由協助官軍平亂,獲得了義民的賞賜之外,地方社會也積極藉用官府頒賜的匾額,以及興建供奉聖旨的廟宇,來擴大義民身份的適用範圍,拉近和王朝正統之間的距離。

Keywords

清代 臺灣 客家 移民 朱一貴事件

Parallel abstracts


This article deals with the process of Hakka settlement in Liudui, southern Taiwan. The author uses historical writings and local legends to show how the legends of the Hakka, or 'guest people', were linked to their securing of settlement rights. Hakka immigrants did not initially acquire government land reclamation licenses, so their migration legends often stressed their connection with such licenses. It was as tenants that they reclaimed and eventually came to control land, threatening the rights of absentee nominal landlords. As a result, in county gazetteers compiled in the 1710s, the Hakka were blamed as the cause of social disturbances. The Zhu Yigui uprising of 1721 marked a turning point in the transformation of their status. Some Hakka assisted in the pacification of the rebellion, earning the honorary title of "loyalist" (yimin). Many Hakka villages utilized this label by erecting plaques and enshrining the imperial edicts given to these individuals in temples. Through these efforts, the status of "loyalist" was expanded beyond specific individuals to the larger community, reducing the distance between the Hakka community and state orthodoxy. In this way, the Hakka legitimized their residence in Liudui.

Parallel keywords

Qing period Taiwan Hakka immigrant Zhu Yigui Uprising

Read-around