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里甲、清真寺與回回家族-以山西長治回回家族為例

Lijia, Mosque, and Huihui People: The Huihui of Changzhi, Shanxi

Abstracts


本文討論了山西長治以程氏和馬氏為主體的回回家族在明清兩代的發展歷程,將家族的產生和發展與本地的里甲賦役、清真寺的建設聯繫起來。筆者認為,長治回回民眾組建家族的過程受明代里甲編審和賦役制度的影響,以里甲和應役單位為核心形成了多個同姓卻相互獨立的家族組織。清真寺一方面作為家族組織化的產物,一度受家族的控制,成為家族成員活動的主要場所。另一方面家族組織在清真寺中共存、合作和競爭的關係,強化了家族的組織化過程,並加深了在同一信仰之下的家族之間的聯繫。到了清代,家族組織仍然以完成里甲賦役為核心,保持和完善自己家族成員之間的關係。而伴隨著程、馬兩氏逐漸失去了對清真寺宗教活動的有力控制,清真寺的事務開始由家族自有走向區域共有,各回回家族之間的關係也隨之變化。

Keywords

長治 里甲 清真寺 回回家族

Parallel abstracts


This paper explores the history of the Huihui of Changzhi, Shanxi, particularly the Ma and Cheng surnames, in Ming-Qing, illustrating the links between lineage development, the lijia corvee system and mosque construction. The author argues that the development of lineages among the Huihui was shaped by the lijia registration and tax and corvee systems of the Ming. Numerous independent lineages sharing the same surname developed as service and tax payment units. At one level the construction of mosques was a product of lineage development, with mosques remaining continuously under lineage control and serving as a main location for lineage members' activities. At the same time, the coexistence, cooperation and competition between lineages in the mosques encouraged the further institutionalization of lineages, and deepened the ties between lineages sharing a common belief system. In the Qing, lineages continued to be organized around fulfillment of lijia obligations, and thereby maintained and even strengthened the ties between their own lineage members. As the Cheng and Ma gradually lost effective control over mosque activities, the mosque gradually transformed from an organization handling lineage matters to one dealing with local affairs more broadly, and this in turn led to changes in the inter-relationships among the various Huihui lineages.

Parallel keywords

Changzhi lijia mosque Huihui lineage

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