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莆田僑鄉的跨國文化網絡-石庭黃氏家族的例證

Transnational Cultural Networks of Emigrant Communities from Putian, Fujian: A Case Study of the Ng (Huang) of Shiting

Abstracts


在華南僑鄉與海外移民之間,廣泛存在以宗族和宗教為標誌的跨國文化網絡。本文主要依據民間歷史文獻與田野調查資料,考察福建省青田市石庭黃氏族人的跨國文化網絡,探討海外移民與僑鄉的互動關係。自清末以來,石庭黃氏族人大規模移居海外,主要分佈於新加坡、馬來西亞、印尼等地,號稱「海外興化人第一巨族」。在海內外石庭人中,存在三種類型的跨國文化網絡:一是以祠堂、祖厝為標誌的家族網絡;二是以里社、村廟為標誌的同鄉網絡;三是以壇班、三一教為標誌的教派網絡。二戰以前的海外石庭人,大多是「落葉歸根」的候鳥式移民,尚未形成相對獨立的社會文化網絡;二戰以後,海外石庭人逐漸「落地生根」,開始創建移植型的家族組織、同鄉組織和教派組織;1980年代以來,海外移民積極推動僑鄉文化復興與傳統再造,建構了各種不同形式的跨國宗族與宗教組織,促成了跨國文化網絡的持續發展。這種植根於僑鄉社會的跨國文化網絡,集中反映了海外華人的文化傳承機制,值得高度關注與深入研究。

Parallel abstracts


Transnational lineage and cult networks are an important aspect of the ties between Overseas Chinese and qiaoxiang emigrant communities, the home villages from which Overseas Chinese or their ancestors originally emigrated. Based on local documents and fieldwork data, this article investigates the transnational cultural network of the Ng (standard Chinese: Huang) lineage of Shiting, Putian, Fujian, in order to study the interactions between the Overseas Chinese and emigrant communities. Since the late Qing, members of the Huang lineage have emigrated in large numbers to Southeast Asia, in particular to Singapore, Malaysia, and Indonesia, where they are known as the "Foremost Clan of Henghua (Xinghua) Overseas Chinese Emigrants". Three types of transnational cultural networks link Shiting people in the home village and those overseas: lineage networks symbolized by ancestral halls and ancestral houses, territorial networks based on the local territorial community and symbolized by altars to the god of the soil (lishe) and village temples, and religious cult networks symbolized by altar associations of spirit mediums and the Three-in-One (Sanyijiao) religion. Before World War II, early emigrants practiced cyclical migration, returning to their hometown in their elderly years. Therefore, an independent social and cultural network did not develop in Southeast Asia. After World War II, there was an emphasis on localization in the community overseas, which led to the formation of transplanted lineage organizations, territorial organizations and religious cult organizations. Since the 1980s, these overseas groups have actively promoted cultural revival and reconstruction of tradition in their ancestral homeland, constructed different forms of transnational lineages and religious organizations, encouraging the sustainable development of transnational networks.

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