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「入譜權」背後的話語較量-以安徽涇縣朱氏系列族譜為樣本

Contending Discourses over the Criteria for Genealogical Inclusion: the Case of the Zhu Lineage of Jingxian, Anhui

Abstracts


本文以明清安徽涇縣張香都朱氏系列族譜關於「入譜權」的規定為分析樣本,指出不同的族譜文本對於「入譜權」問題的詮釋差異很大,甚至出現彼此相互角力的情形。出現這一情形的背後,蘊藏的是宗族不同分支之間的話語權爭奪和利益訴求表達。進一步分析,本文認為,隨著明清宗族制度逐漸成為基層社會秩序的重要基礎,作為宗族建設的基本文獻-族譜,也就超越了登記世系、「敦宗睦族」的一般文化意義,與宗族制度相配合,具有了服務於基層社會運行的、包括人口登記在內的溢出性功能。正是族譜的功能溢出,吸引了各式權力積極介入族譜爭奪話語權。透過涇縣樣本,我們能清晰地看到,明清時期,族譜這一似乎神聖的宗族「憲章」與世俗的「權力話語」深深地交織在了一起。

Keywords

族譜 入譜權 權力話語

Parallel abstracts


This paper analyzes the criteria for inclusion in a lineage genealogy, the rules governing who is eligible to be included, in the genealogies of the Zhu surname of Zhangxiangdu, Jingxian, Anhui. Different editions of a genealogy may have very significant differences in how this issue is discussed and may even be mutually contradictory. These contending positions are the product of competition between different branches of the lineage over discursive authority and the pursuit of their interests. The article argues that as lineages gradually became the basis of the social order in Ming and Qing, the genealogy transcended its original cultural function to record and promote "harmony" among the membership. Genealogies were adapted to suit the larger lineage system, serving as a mechanism for the functioning of society. The spillover effects included a new function as a population register.

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