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明清四川軍戶的發展與宗族建構-以冕寧胡家堡胡氏為個案

The Development of Military Households and Their Lineage Construction in Ming and Qing Sichuan

Abstracts


本文以四川冕寧胡家堡胡氏為例,探討明清四川軍戶是如何發展並建構其宗族的。胡氏原籍如舉,在明初以電戶充軍,後隨同籍武官來到寧番衛城北鎮守。明中後期,胡氏因防守和墾種屯田而遷往衛南白鹿沖,開創胡家堡,由此獲得發展。一方面,萬曆年間胡氏子孫胡全禮成功入仕'開創了詩書傳統;另一方面,屯戌使得胡氏積累起不少田土資源。入清後,胡氏利用已有的經濟、文化基礎和權力網絡迅速開始了人才培養和宗族建設,至清前期已發展成地方大族。不過,清初延續下來的田土隱匿和產權不清問題給胡氏公產的運作帶來不少麻煩,隨著雍乾時期改衛為縣、田土清丈、禁止漢夷交產的推行,胡氏族內矛盾重重,幾乎將公產瓜分殆盡,導致宗族運作的基礎瓦解,胡氏所剩不過祠堂、譜牒等一系列的宗族符號。嘉慶以後,胡氏又多次聯宗修譜並重塑了宗族形象,但人才貧乏,與普通家族已無二樣。胡氏個案顯示,在以往我們所認識的清初四川的殘破背後,仍有土著延續下來,並利用原有的經濟文化基礎在清初獲得迅速的發展,而且他們對田地的隱佔和賦役徵派的抵抗,是導致清初寧番衛賦役難徵這一問題的重要因素。這一案例,對我們重新思考明清四川社會的連續性及其影響問題頗具啟發意義。

Keywords

軍戶 宗族 寧番衛 冕寧 胡氏

Parallel abstracts


This paper uses a case study of the Hu family of Hujiapu, Mianing, Sichuan to illustrate how military households in Ming and Qing Sichuan developed and formed lineages. The Hu were originally from Rugao; they were conscripted and registered as a military household in early Ming. Thereafter they followed their commander, also from Rugao, to military assignment at Ningfan Guard. In the mid Ming, due to their patrol duties and reclamation of military colony lands they moved to Bailuchong to the south of the Guard. There they established Hujiapu (Hu family fortress), the base for their subsequent development. In the late sixteenth century, some descendants of the Hu family became literati and established a family scholarly tradition. Meanwhile, their status as colony soldiers allowed the Hu to accumulate considerable lands. In the early Qing, the Hu used their existing economic and cultural foundation and power network to further cultivate talent and develop their lineage organization. By the early Qing, they had become a powerful local lineage. But ambiguous ownership rights and the fact that much of their land was unregistered created considerable difficulties for the Hu in their efforts to endow and maintain corporate property. When in the eighteenth century the Guard was converted to a civilian county, the reregistration of lands, prohibition on exchanges between Han and non-Han, and the intensification of internal tensions within the Hu led to the disintegration of their corporate properties, leading in tum to the dissolution of the bases for lineage activity. All that remained was an ancestral hall, a genealogy and other symbolic expressions of the lineage. In the early nineteenth century, the Hu repeatedly compiled a genealogy and built other symbols of a lineage, but with no outstanding talents they were no longer distinguishable from other ordinary lineages. The Hu case illustrates that despite the early Qing destruction of Sichuan, some local elites were able to endure, using their prior economic resources to enjoy rapid development. The Hu's control of land and resistance to tax allocation were important factors explaining the fiscal difficulties of Ningfan in the early Qing. This case is thus profoundly revealing of the continuities in Sichuan society from Ming to Qing.

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