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新加坡華人的宗族實踐與祖神信仰-以福建人為例

Chinese Singaporean's Practice of Lineage and Worship of Ancestral Deities: A Case Study of the Hokkien People

Abstracts


本文關注新加坡華人以「祖神」之名進行宗族實踐的過程。本文運用新加坡福建人(閩南人)的例子,探究華人在海外環境中以祖神信仰與姓氏廟實踐宗族關係的現象。其現象可以分作三類:「以神為重」、「亦神亦祖」和「神、祖並存」,又以第一種類型居多。新加坡政府為了在土地有限的情況下,提高土地使用成效和興修公共建設,陸續頒佈土地利用相關的政令,重新安排土地的使用。這使得絕大部份的廟宇在20世紀七八十年代都面臨搬遷和重建的問題。常見的重建方式是數間廟宇組成「聯合廟」,因此,重建之姓氏廟空間再現於兩種形式:獨立廟和聯合廟。本文亦探討在姓氏廟搬遷之後,人們如何重新規劃廟宇空間和因應宗族活動空間的改變。研究顯示,是否擁有獨立廟宇空間確實影響姓氏廟運作與宗族意識之展演。本文以為上述討論有助於我們概念化新加坡華人以祖神信仰實踐宗族關係、維繫宗族認同的過程,以及能對姓氏廟適應新加坡社會變遷和國家政策挑戰的能動性有進一步的認識藏。

Parallel abstracts


This article examines how Chinese Singaporeans connected their clan members with ancestral deities in their practice of lineage and ancestral worshipping. Specifically, such activities take place in lineage temples where kinsmen are offered with ritual space to worship their ancestral deities. This article offers an in-depth analysis of five case studies of Hokkien people and proposes that there are three models of linage practices: "Deity-centered", "Deities as Ancestral Figures" and "Coexistence of Deities and Ancestors". Quantitatively, the "Deity-centered" model is most common while the "Coexistence of Deities and Ancestors" model is the least common one. This article also demonstrates how lineage temples responded to the challenges, when the government was redefining the land usage. Since its independence in 1965, Singapore has promulgated various legislations of the use and acquisition of land. Against this backdrop, lineage temples had to be relocated and rebuilt, either independently or be merged as united temples (聯合廟). After moving, many lineage temples were rebuilt under expansive land contracts, and a hybrid category of "united temples"-temples combined with shared land space-was formed. United temples even had multiple lineage flags under the same roof, since every linage group made great efforts to keep their own signatures. This paper helps toconceptualize the process that Chinese Singaporeans practice their lineages through deity worshipping and sheds new lights on how lineage temples responded to challenges arising from societal development and the changing government policies.

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