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從「相忘於江湖」到「分庭抗禮」-清初至當代基隆市客家認同的形成

From "Forgetting the Differences" to "Competing with Each Other": The Formation of Hakka Identity in Keelung City from the Early Qing to the Present

Abstracts


本文試圖透過清初至當代基隆市客家認同的形成過程,探究臺灣社會族群意識的衍生機制,及歷史資源如何在社會與學術脈絡中被反復重構。在基隆市的歷史當中,客語人群活躍的歷史至少可追溯到清中期。日治中葉的漢人籍貫調查顯示,當地曾是全臺灣福建汀州府籍講客家話人口最集中的區域。然而,這一群體的族群意識在當代並不明顯,多半消融於以姓氏宗親會及神明崇拜中,成為一種集體的無意識。戰後來自臺灣各地的新客語群體,則紛紛依附於該地外省「廣東人」群體,從而形成共同的同鄉會組織。直至1970年代,基隆市都市發展導致會內財產爭奪劇烈,加之鄰近的臺北市發展成世界客家中心的刺激,新客語群體才脫離「廣東人」之殼,而另行成立以「客家人」為名的獨立社團。在當代的學術史敘述中,基隆從擁有一個規模頗小的客家社團,到被視為曾存在龐大客家群體的區域,則是1990年代以降地方精英與學術團體將兩個斷裂的傳統糅合為一的結果。

Keywords

基隆市 客家 廣東 認同 宗親會

Parallel abstracts


Investigating how the identity of the Hakka group in Keelung City formed from the early Qing Dynasty to the present, this article aims to explore the evolution mechanism of Taiwan s social ethnic consciousness, and how historical resources have been repeatedly reconstructed in social and academic contexts. The history of the Hakka-speaking community in Keelung can be traced back to at least the mid-Qing dynasty. A survey on the origins of Han Chinese in Taiwan conducted under the Japanese governance showed that Keelung was once the area concentrated with the most Hakka-speaking people from Tingzhou Prefecture, Fujian Province. However, the ethnic consciousness of this group at that time was not evident and was mostly covered under their Lineage Associations and their worship of deities. Their Hakkaness therefore became a collective subconscious. After WWII, Hakka-speaking groups across Taiwan became associated with the newly arrived "Cantonese" group,with whom they formed the Guangdong Natives Association together. During the 1970s, the rapid urban development of Keelung led to fierce competition for property rights within the Guangdong Natives Association, and the neighboring Taipei City had gradually developed into a global Hakka center. Influenced by these two factors, the new Hakka group in Keelung started to separate itself from the umbrella of "Guangdong" and formed an independent community, the "Hakka Natives Association". In the contemporary academic narratives, Keelung is seen as having a large Hakka community. This should be contributed to the efforts made by local elites and academic groups, who led to form a small-scale Hakka community in the post-war period and combined it with the large-scale Hakka-speaking who have lived there for a hundred years.

Parallel keywords

Keelung City Hakka Guangdong identity Lineage Association

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