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神聖相對性:論佛的世間性

Divine Relativity: the Social Aspect of Buddha

Abstracts


本文試就「佛有三身」之說,分析其中內含佛的世間性層面,似具萬有在神論的特色。如大乘佛學所主張,佛有三身:法身、應化身和報身,分別代表佛的永恆、變化和樂受等不同層面。根據這個學說,中國佛學發展出「佛即眾生,眾生即佛」或「心佛眾生,三無差別」之說。這同時也引發了華嚴澄觀大師提出「生佛互在」之說。就宗教上的超卓存有和人之間的全面關係而言,這些發展明白顯示佛的世間性,從而具備了高度的哲學和人道主義的含意。因而我們可以說佛教之所以擁有不懈追求人類最高精神境界的動能,正是出於這世間性的理想。

Keywords

三身 萬有在神論 澄觀

Parallel abstracts


The object of this paper is to show that there is a social aspect of the conception of Buddha in of the doctrine of the Trikāya (Threefold Body) of Buddha, which seems to be of a panentheistic nature. As the Mahāyāna Buddhists had held, there were three bodies of Buddha, Dharmakāya, Nirmāṇakāya, and Sambohogakāya, which represented the eternal, the transformable, and the blissful aspects of Buddha respectively. From this doctrine, the well-received doctrine in Chinese Buddhism that "Buddha is related to (or as) all sentients and all sentients are related to (or as) Buddha" had been developed. This in turn gave rise the notion of the mutual immanence of Buddha and all sentients which was well expounded by Huayan (Flower Garland) Master Cheng Guan. All this development evidently reveals the prominent social character of Buddha, which, in terms of an all-embracing relationship of a Supreme Being to human beings, entails a highly philosophical and humanistic significance. And it could well be claimed that the force of Buddhism as an unceasing inspiration for human endeavors to achieve the highest spiritual level may have its source in this ideal sociality.

Parallel keywords

Trikaya Panentheism Cheng Guan

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