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日治時期臺灣的衛生調查與疾病統計:兼論以GIS輔助疾病史研究

The Health Investigation and Disease Statistics in Colonail Taiwan: Using GIS in Historical Research of Disease

Abstracts


本文全面整理了日治時期的衛生調查與疾病統計調資料,目的在探索以地理資訊系統(GIS)輔助疾病史研究的可能性。從史料性質而言,「常態性的死亡記錄」、「常態性的患者記錄」提供了歷年全島規模的資料,「非常態性的疾病調查報告」多為呼應總督府衛生課的衛生施策,而「其他小規模統計」則多指殖民地衛生官員、研究技師、醫師等的個人觀察。四種資料相互為用,足以探討疾病的罹患或死亡動向。若以GIS應用的角度來看,上述史料其實只有「點」與「面」兩種型態。本文以日治時期的公醫分布與瘧疾防治為例,說明點資料或面資料最直接的視覺化呈現有助於理解疾病史中的地理環境、區域差異等空間面向;空間分析則讓地圖中的空間關係更為明顯,亦某種程度彌補了史料因不足或斷裂而難以完整呈現的時空現象;而這些疾病地圖便成為誘發歷史思考、強化歷史解釋的具體線索。GIS在疾病史學中的工具性角色或許正如顯微鏡,讓原本看不見或不易被看見的風景進入研究者的視野。

Parallel abstracts


This paper is aimed to reveal GIS's possibility as a tool of historical study of medicine and disease in colonial Taiwan. During the colonial era (1895-1945), many public health investigations have been performed. Thus abundant records as well as statistical data exist. These historical resources were extensively used and analyzed in former studies, but little attention was paid to the space aspect. This paper gives a systematic introduction to the important historical resources of medicine and disease. By using GIS as a tool to integrate, visualize and analyze these data, this paper also provides case studies to discuss the establishment of medical network, the distribution of endemic disease, and the relationship between medicine, disease and environment in colonial Taiwan.

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