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The Role of NEWS2 + Lactate + D-Dimer in Predicting Intensive Care Unit Admission and In-Hospital Mortality of COVID-19 Patients


Background: We investigated the parameters of National Early Warning Score 2 (NEWS2) + lactate + D-dimer in predicting the intensive care unit (ICU) admission and in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Methods: Patients, who applied to the emergency department of a tertiary university hospital and were taken to the COVID-19 zone with suspected COVID-19 between March 2020 and June 2020, were retrospectively examined. In this study, 244 patients, who were hospitalized and had positive polymerase chain reaction test results, were included. NEWS2, lactate, and D-dimer levels of the patients were recorded. Patients were grouped by the states of in-hospital mortality and ICU admission. Results: Of 244 patients who were included in the study, 122 (50%) were male, while their mean age was 53.76 ± 17.36 years. 28 (11.5%) patients were admitted to the ICU, while in-hospital mortality was seen in 14 (5.7%) patients. The levels of D-dimer, NEWS2, NEWS2 + lactate, NEWS2 + D-dimer, NEWS2 + lactate + D-dimer were statistically significantly higher in patients with in-hospital mortality and admitted to ICU (p < 0.05). The area under the curve (AUC) values of D-dimer, lactate, NEWS2, NEWS2 + lactate, NEWS2 + D-dimer, NEWS2 + lactate + D-dimer in predicting ICU admission were as 0.745 (0.658-0.832), 0.589 (0.469-0.710), 0.760 (0.675-0.845), 0.774 (0.690-0.859), 0.776 (0.692-0.860), and 0.778 (0.694-0.862), respectively; while the AUC values of these parameters in predicting in-hospital mortality were found to be as 0.768 (0.671-0.865), 0.695 (0.563-0.827), 0.735 (0.634-0.836), 0.757 (0.647-0.867), 0.752 (0.656-0.848), and 0.764 (0.655-0.873), respectively. Conclusions: Compared to using the NEWS2 value alone, a combination of NEWS2, lactate, and D-dimer was found to be more valuable in predicting in-hospital mortality and ICU admission.