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大乘佛教久住世間的菩薩精神特質

The Nature and Spirit of the Worldly Bodhisattva of the Mahayana Buddhism

Abstracts


聲聞佛法負面看待生死世界,全心追求苦痛止滅的解脫涅槃,並不積極改善芸芸眾生的苦難境況。大乘佛教倡導自他二利,於利人中完成己利的圓滿,要求以極長遠時間跨度投入生死世界的救度事業。人間菩薩行並非不須面對生死之苦,而是憑藉高尚的精神特質予以超越。實踐菩薩道以甚深般若不執取生死和涅槃二邊,處於生死而離五欲繫縛;戰勝煩惱而不取證涅槃,坎陷世間而無住自在。以慈悲誓願支持利他實踐的偉大理想,因己身的苦痛經驗而推己及人,發願久住世間引領一切有情獲致安樂。以柔和忍辱的修持提升存在的勇氣與寬廣的胸襟,克服恐懼和怯懦,心境平和地包容種種阻礙與對立。菩薩具備般若、慈悲和忍辱這些高尚的精神特質,支撐著廣大艱難的久遠利濟事業,現身生死世界而了無執著,不生恐懼,不感疲厭。

Keywords

人間菩薩行 久住世間 般若 慈悲 忍辱

Parallel abstracts


Buddhism has been viewed as a religion with a negative view on the life and dead of the mundane world and seeks for a liberation from sufferings in a state of nirvana, therefore it is inactive and indifference towards the predicament of all living beings. Mahayana Buddhism promotes the two benefits of self-beneficence and altruism, in which personal benefits can be attained by altruistic actions towards the others, and the demand to involve in the long salvation industry in this world. The bodhisattva way in this world does not mean that it will be unnecessary to confront the issue of life and death, but it is to transcend these sufferings with noble spirits. To practice the bodhisattva way with the wisdom that transcends the concern for both the life/dead issue and nirvana, to situate oneself within the world while distancing from the constraint of the five cravings; to conquer anxiety without reliance on the nirvana, and come down from the purity of enlightenment to the defiled world and be freed from all worldly things. To fulfill the grand ideal of altruism in pledging to serve with compassion, to be sympathetic to others by referencing to ones own sufferings, and to be poised to bring happiness and peace to every sentiment beings on this world. To enhance once courage and endurance by diligent trainings, conquer fear and cowardice, and accept the different obstacles and oppositions with a peaceful mind. The bodhisattva embraces the noble spirit of wisdom, compassion and endurance in supporting the grand but difficult industry, bringing mass benefits to the people without any fear or detest.

Parallel keywords

bodhisattva way prajna compassion endurance

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