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智顗所制懺法的整合特質及其當代應用思考

The Intergrated Features of Zhiyi's Repentance Rituals and an Exploration of Their Modern Application

Abstracts


本文聚焦智顗所制懺儀,探討他對大乘懺法如何拓展與深化,提升懺悔法門的實踐價值;並於此基礎上,思考天台懺法面對當代社會文化如何進行調適轉化的課題。大乘懺法的本意在消解罪障,以利菩薩行深進,但也易流於世俗利益追求。南北朝時懺法盛行,或作為修行方便,或藉此消災解厄,在個人修學的形式之外,並已發展出集體誦經的禮懺法會,為帝王和國家禳災祈福,但未見積極整合懺悔與禪觀的實例。智顗曾參學慧曠與慧思,獲得修習懺法的深層體驗,將懺悔與禪觀的修學融合一體,成為甚具價值的創新實踐模式,戒定慧三學都具有懺除業障的功用。天台懺法特色包括:一、提升懺法成為三昧行法;二、事懺為基導入實相理懺;三、整合多元實踐構成一套有序行法;四、嚴設修持條件以達致最佳效驗;五、依實際修懺體驗給出詳實指導。關於天台懺法的當代應用思考,本文提議應適度放寬參與條件與修懺期間的規定;對懺法略予精簡而不致過度影響成效;以及平日講習懺法文本與天台義理,修懺者也應事先多加預習嫻熟;最後,應思考修懺成果與現代生活的相融,將修學經驗化為生活智慧。

Keywords

天台懺法 智顗 懺悔 禪觀 當代應用

Parallel abstracts


In this article, we focus the attention on the repentance rituals compiled by Zhiyi (智顗) to discuss the ways he broadened and deepened the Mahāyāna repentance practices and therefore enhanced their worth for Buddhist cultivation. On the basis of this study, the issue of how the Tientai repentance rituals could be adapted to the needs of modern social culture is explored. The original purpose of Mahāyāna repentance practices is to release karmic effects of wrong doings to promote the bodhisattva cultivation. However, it is also quite prone to the pursuit of worldly benefits. During the Southern and Northern Dynasties, repentance practices became popular, but there was no case could be found about the combination of repentance ritual and meditation. Zhiyi had once studied under Huikuang (慧曠) and Huisi (慧思) and had gained a deep religious experience from practicing repentance, and he integrated the methods of repentance and meditation to form a quite worthy and creative model for Buddhist practice. In this integrated model, the practices of precept, concentration and wisdom all become the methods of releasing unwholesome karmic effects. The distinctive features of Tientai repentance rituals include: promoting the repentance rituals to become meditation methods, proceeding to the repentance through truth (理懺) based on the repentance through rituals (事懺), integrating a variety of practice methods to cope with different obstacles, setting demanding standards to bring best desired result, and presenting detailed guidance based on personal religious experiences. With regards to the modern application of Tientai repentance rituals, some points are suggested: the demanding standards and the time period need to be properly relaxed; the rituals and methods should be simplified but without excessively reducing the positive results; the texts of repentance ritual and Tientai theories are expounded in ordinary time, and the participants are asked to practice meditation in advance; lastly, it should be considered that the results of repentance practice could be harmonized with the daily life.

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