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教觀雙美的民初天台佛學教育初探

Initial Exploration in Tientai Buddhist Education’s Excellent Philosophical Realization in Early 20^(th) Century

Abstracts


本文從印度與漢傳佛教佛學教育傳統,與天台宗的教育特色的背景,釐析1949年前民國時期諦閑法師的天台宗傳承、投入倡導新式佛學教育,他和弟子倓虛法師間的授業經過,以及倓虛法師興辦多間佛學院的過程。透過這兩位振興天台宗的法師的人物關係,及教學內涵的傳承等辦學史,來探討與突顯二十世紀初期的中國佛學教育、特別是天台宗的教育課題。研究指出,在面對佛教教育現代化的時代需求,諦閑、倓虛等於東北、華北各地相繼創立多所天台宗佛學院。這些佛學院因二次世界大戰與國共內戰等因素,運作時間都很短暫,而使其教育體制沒能來得及在天台宗理論特色與教育特質上有所深入與落實,便遭遇了停辦的命運。然其教觀雙美的中國天台教育特色,與印度那爛陀佛學院的精神一致,對中國佛教的現代化教育仍具有領頭的啟發性意義與深遠影響,很值得現代偏重知識教育的佛學教育機構重視與學習。而倓虛以「寓佛學於醫學」的特殊僧伽教育理念興辦醫學院和醫院,將醫療機構定位在「救濟事業」,並已注意到臨終關懷的問題,都是極具前瞻性的看法。

Parallel abstracts


This essay describes and analyzes the cultural legacy of Master Dixian (諦閑, 1858-1932), with particular attention to the contribution to the Tientai Buddhist sect by Dixian himself and his principal disciple, Master Tanxu (倓虛, 1875-1963). These two masters established many Tientai monasteries in northern and northeastern China prior to 1949, at a time when the Chinese Buddhist educational system was compelled to be modernized under social pressure. Inspired by the educational practices of various Buddhist institutions in India, especially Nalanda University, these monasteries combined Buddhist theory and practice. The contribution of Dixian and Tanxu has had a far-reaching influence on the ongoing modernization of Buddhist education in China. Tanxu's idea of combining Buddhism and medical knowledge was particularly effective in sangha education, hospice care, and the establishment of charitable organizations, such as hospitals and medical schools.

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