This study explores changes in the mathematics curriculum in Finland and Taiwan between 1960 and 2021. Divided by key events or significant changes in the nature or content of the mathematics curriculum, Finland experienced about five waves of change and Taiwan about six. The four findings are as follows: First, mathematics education reform in Finland and Taiwan is influenced by the dynamics of mathematics education in the United States. Second, there are marked differences in the interaction patterns between mathematicians, mathematics educators, school mathematics teachers, and mathematics textbook publishers in Finland and Taiwan. Third, problem-solving has been a constant concern in Finland and Taiwan since the 1980s. Finally, compared with Finland's experience, Taiwan can pay more attention to the equality of educational opportunity in mathematics education and enrich the research on the sociology of mathematics education.