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  • Theses

用城市包圍農村:中國的國族革命與臺灣的城鄉逆轉(1945-1953)

Encompassing Villages with Cities: China’s Nation-State Revolution and Taiwan’s Urban-rural Reverse(1945-1953)

Advisor : 王志弘
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Abstracts


本文旨在闡明臺灣城鄉逆轉的背後成因與具體進程。我所謂的城鄉逆轉是由農民離農、都市化及區域失衡這三個人口現象所構成。問題是,在臺灣,城鄉逆轉不僅未見於戰前各時期,更出現在農業沒落、工業化及出口擴張以前的1945-1953年間。本文由是假定,國民政府戰後初期的一系列在臺政策,特別是幣制改革與土地改革,乃蔣介石革命建國事業在臺之延續,並且,就是導致臺灣城鄉逆轉的主要原因。 具體而言,蔣介石的革命建國運動首重孫中山的「錢幣革命(以紙幣代金銀)」,故與毛澤東首重土地革命的革命路線形成強烈對比。其中,鍛造國族貨幣體系不只是蔣介石的革命目標,更是他調度全國人力物資以支應革命戰爭需要的最重要物質手段。於是,國民政府常因戰爭需求擴大而增加貨幣發行。能否壓抑物價並鞏固幣值,也就相應成為國民政府能否完成革命建國大業的關鍵所在。這一點,不只深刻地影響着1927-1945年間中國的空間發展,也直接決定着1945-1953年間臺灣的空間發展。因為,每逢高估匯率成為蔣介石政權的一線生機,高額匯差也就成為商業與金融資本的崛起溫床。 進一步說,臺灣戰前百年來,無論政權更迭,農村始終是資本積累的地理中心。儘管城市在日治時期已是贓分農業剩餘之利潤部分的主要地點,但由於農產品的持續生產與流通才是資本積累的主要物質基礎,因此,無論是地租、利潤、或利息,最終都要回歸農村才能持續積累,從而永遠只能表現為農地的租、農產品的利潤、以及農民的利息。 1949年的幣制改革,致使城市取代農村成為臺灣資本積累的地理中心。其中,新臺幣的實質高估不僅讓農產品的持續生產與流通成了標準的賠本生意,也讓貨幣的持續生產與流通成為資本持續積累的主要物質基礎。在這個意義上,無論是地租、利潤、或利息,最終都要回歸城市才能持續積累,因此總是表現為市地的租、舶來品的利潤、以及市民的利息。儘管戰後初期,臺灣沒有發達的現代工業,但這已不足妨礙金融、商業與土地資本,在城市中快速積累。鍛造城市積累體制並導致城鄉逆轉,是蔣介石革命事業的重大在臺成就之一。 1953年的農地改革,意外地鞏固了城市積累體制。耕者有其田條例非但未能杜絕農�市地之間的變更使用,還為農�市地之間的變更使用創造了制度性條件。城市房地產的投機炒作,至此成為資本在城市中持續積累的合法渠道。

Parallel abstracts


This dissertation aims to elucidate Taiwan’s urban-rural reverse during 1945-1953. In many existing literatures, it has been well documented that urban-rural reverses—a demographical phenomenon composed of peasantry migration, urbanization, and uneven geographical development—might be triggered by either corrosion on agriculture, industrialization, or export expansion. However, in Taiwan, none of these three factors existed when urban-rural reverse had occurred. Based on the fact, I then assume that monetary reform in 1949 and land reform in 1953 are not only continuation of China’s nation-state revolution led by Kai-Shek Chiang, but also critical factors for Taiwan’s urban-rural reverse. To confirm the assumption, it is important to identify characters of Chiang’s revolution strategy in building a nation-state. Compared with Ze-Dong Mao, who aimed to encompass cities with villages and gained his momentum mainly from land reform, Kai-Shek Chiang tried to rule villages by cities and exercised his authority through an unprecedented control over currency. He then followed in Yat-Sen Sun’s steps, prioritizing monetary reform, regarding a well-functional national-monetary system as a necessary base of the nation-state revolution. As a result, once the Nanjing national government’s financial deficit arouse hyperinflation, overestimation of foreign exchange rate became necessary for the government to lower consumer price, so as to function the national-monetary system. The long-term overestimation of foreign exchange rate affected not only China’s geographical development during 1927-1945, but also Taiwan’s urban-rural reverse during 1945-1953. Specifically, the monetary reform reconstructed Taiwan’s accumulation regime, making cities substituted for villages to be geographical centers of capital accumulation. Since the reform made the overestimation of foreign exchange rate necessary for maintaining Chiang’s nation-state revolution, reproduction and exportation of agricultural products became profitless from then on. At the same time, consumption and importation of industrial products became profitable, which could be held merely in cities. The two outcomes of the monetary reform made accumulation of capital possible without any of the following investiments in agricultural land, agricultural products, or peasantry loan. The rise of city-centered accumulation regime that led to the urban-rural reverse thus became one of the most revolutionary achievements in Chiang’ nation-state revolution in post-war Taiwan. Ideally, Taiwan’s land reform in 1953 was supposed to suppress land speculation by restricting land use rezoning. However, an actual effect about which the reform has brought was far from suppressing but facilitating land speculation in terms of legitimizing the land use rezoning. The proliferation of land speculation that further consolidated the newly city-centered accumulation regime then became one of the most ironical consequences of Taiwan’s land reform in 1953.

References


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