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A Tale of Two Cities: A Multimodal Analysis of the Figurative Expressions about City in Picture Books

Advisor : 江文瑜


本研究旨在探討都市意象於繪本中的多模態隱喻呈現,並試圖結合跨領域的觀點剖析人類如何運用認知機制,來創造與理解輪廓模糊的城市概念,進而闡述此隱喻性的意象是如何透過跨模態互動建構而成,從中又透露了何種藝術性的美感以及現代人心理層面的訊息。 隨著人類文明的演進與發展,傳統「以天為蓋,以地為廬」的農村聚落生活形式,在歷經了工業革命與全球化的浪潮後,逐漸被高度科技化與現代化的都會區所取代。有鑿於此一居住環境的轉變,勢必對人類文化的各個層面產生前所未有的深刻影響,與都市牽繫的議題在近幾個世紀因而日益受到大眾的關注。然而,一覽相關的文獻,以往的研究大多聚焦於建築學與都市設計等的領域,而鮮少有來自非工程科學的貢獻。因此,本研究從認知語言學的角度出發,輔以藝術與心理學的邏輯層次,不僅指明現代人眼中的都市意象,如何透過根植於人類概念系統的隱喻思維框架所濾鏡而成,更彰顯了這些極具美學共鳴的隱喻性意象,實際上暗藏了不少人類潛意識錯綜複雜的情感脈絡。 本研究萃取「概念隱喻理論」(Conceptual Metaphor Theory)與「隱喻辨識程序」(Metaphor Identification Procedure)的精髓,設計出一組「視覺-文字多模態隱喻辨識程序」(Visual-Verbal Multimodal Metaphor Identification Procedure),來分析精於處理都市題材的臺灣當代繪本作家幾米(Jimmy)的32本著作。結果顯示,在辨認出的266筆多模態語料中,輪廓飄渺的都市意象之本質,實為如拼圖般的轉喻片斷,所勾勒而成的琳瑯滿目的「幻想都市全景」(imaginative urban panorama)。此幻想都市全景又可經由採納不同形式的多模態網絡―「視覺模態顯性網絡」(Visual-Mode-Prominent Network)、「文字模態顯性網絡」(Verbal-Mode-Prominent Network)、「視覺-文字模態同等網絡」(Visual-Verbal-Mode-Equivalent Network)―來展現各種大異其趣的敘事風格。此外,本研究亦根據隱喻映涉過程中來源域的數量,提出兩種類型的多模態隱喻―「簡約多模態隱喻」(Simple Multimodal Metaphor)與「複合多模態隱喻」(Complex Multimodal Metaphor)―並指出隨著來源域的數量增加,一個隱喻的抽象程度與所欲傳達的訊息複雜度亦會升高。而如此變化萬千的隱喻所交織出的都市意象,在融合「魔幻超現實」(Magic Surrealism)之藝術手法的同時,更揭示了繁浩無極的都市人共同之創傷經驗。最後,本研究發現,作為目標域的都市概念之轉喻特質,不但容許單一隱喻以多元的映射方式,呈現「多模態隱喻場景連鎖反應」(Multimodal Metaphorical Scenario Chain Reaction),來堆砌出包羅萬象的都市隱喻表述,更極富潛力刺激新穎的隱喻醞釀成形。 簡而言之,藉由繪本中的都市意象之多模態隱喻分析,本研究期望能為認知語言學激盪出跨領域的火花,更希冀能為廿一世紀之高度都市化的時代趨勢作出透徹的詮釋,進而為人類文明的演化歷程寫下新的註解。

Parallel abstracts

Realizing the significant role that city plays in the development of human civilization, the influence it brings to people’s life in the modern society, as well as its absence in fields other than architecture, urban design, and urban planning, this research aims to study the multimodal metaphorical manifestations of civic imagery in picture books from a cognitive linguistic point of view. Relying on the Visual-Verbal Multimodal Metaphor Identification Procedure (VVMMIP) constructed by us through referring to Conceptual Metaphor Theory (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980, 2003; Lakoff, 1987, 1993) and Metaphor Identification Procedure (Pragglejaz Group, 2007), we make a thorough examination of the 266 data collected from the Taiwanese picture book writer Jimmy Liao’s 32 works. The results unfold that (1) holding a metonymic nature, an urban setting with multimodality may be limned through multimodal networks displaying distinctive focuses upon visual and verbal modes, namely, the Visual-Mode-Prominent Network, the Verbal-Mode-Prominent Network, or the Visual-Verbal-Mode-Equivalent Network. (2) Two types of multimodal metaphor―Simple Multimodal Metaphors and Complex Multimodal Metaphors―are figured out to delineate cityscape, distinguishing each other in the aspects of the degree of reality and the sophistication of metaphorical message. That is, whereas the civic imagery and the figurative implication formed by Simple Multimodal Metaphors tend to be transparent due to its mapping structure between a pair of source and target domains, those of Complex Multimodal Metaphors are rather convoluted by virtue of the fact that they feature a multiple-to-one source and target interrelationship. (3) The individual solitude and the interpersonal alienation lurking in the metaphorical sketch of city are brought to light, revealing the truth that the product of human conceptual system in fact tells much about the collective traumatic experience of metropolitans. (4) Based on the phenomenon that urban imagery in the realm of metaphor is characterized by the harmonious fusion of bizarre and ordinary elements, we propose the civic magic surrealism, which, absorbing the dynamics of multimodal simile and oxymoron, provide a possible path to understand the illogic human subconscious. (5) Finally, the Multimodal Metaphorical Scenario Chain Reaction is suggested to interpret the interconnection between distinctive multimodal figurative presentations of urban imagery, reflecting that a target concept with a metonymic property would allow a diversity of novel multimodal metaphors to take appearance. In a nutshell, this research sheds light upon the remarkable points concerning urban vista under the multimodal metaphor framework and endeavors to make contribution to interdisciplinary studies.


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