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商標及專利授權登記效力之比較研究

A Comparative Study on the Effect of Registration for Trademark and Patent Licenses

Advisor : 蔡明誠
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Abstracts


我國專利法第62條授權規定「非經向專利專責機關登記,不得對抗第三人」,商標法第39條亦為相同授權規定,均係採登記對抗制。我國民法係採形式主義立法,以登記或交付之公示方法為物權變動之成立或生效要件,即交付或登記生效主義,然專利權與商標權之授權採行以意思主義立法之登記對抗制度,交付或登記對抗主義係物權變動僅須當事人之意思表示,即足生效力,公示方法係對抗要件而非生效要件。 專利與商標之授權採登記對抗制度,此制度於我國衍生出最大爭議在於多重交易時權利之歸屬,原因在於國內學說或實務均傾向從登記生效主義反面推導登記對抗主義的內涵,登記對抗主義係容許多重交易的存在,未登記前為並存之權利,再者,專利與商標等無體財產權非有體物,尤其授權之本質係容許複數使用權並存,這是一物一權的形式主義扞格不入之處。 本文由最基本的商標權與專利權之本質、授權契約內涵與類型、各國對於授權登記之相關規定,其中日本、韓國專利法與商標法之規定,近年數度修改,本文仔細比對新法之原文,希冀可供作學術參考。本文結合日本民法大家們關於不動產登記對抗制度學說之探討,取其精神,尋求專利法與商標法授權適用登記對抗制度之完適解釋,首創試圖以系統化方式,表現兩相衝突之權利彼此間對抗效力之消長。日本在商標法、專利法上之專屬授權與非專屬授權,係採取不同之制度,而採取不同制度之背景與辯證過程,正是目前我國所需,因此本文專編整理翻譯數篇、未在我國學術論文中所見之日本期刊文章,期待本文對於我國未來釋法用法修法上,能有所貢獻。

Parallel abstracts


Under our current law system, according to the Article 62 of Patent Act ” The licensing of a pledge on a patent right by the patentee shall have no locus standi against any third party unless it is recorded with the Specific Patent Agency” and the Article 39 of Trademark Act” A license shall have no locus standi against any third party unless it is entered in the Register by the Registrar Office,” patent licensing and trademark licensing adopts registration antagonism. R.O.C. Civil Code pursues the principle of formalism, which means alteration of real rights cannot come into effect unless public notification(delivery or registration). However, patent licensing and trademark licensing adopts the system of registration antagonism which is founded on consensualism. According to consensualism, alteration of real rights needs only consensus of contract parties, and the form of public notification is not a constitutive requirement. In the mode of registration antagonism, if one person has obtained the ownership of some patent or trademark right without registration, then another person also takes the opportunity to grant this license with registration, finally the controversy about the ownership of the items between two people would appear. It turns out to be difficult to explain the circumstances of multiple licenses under the principle of formalism, and give rise to disputes regarding the legal effect of licensing registration antagonism. According to Article 177 of Japanese Civil Code, acquisitions of, losses of and changes in real rights concerning immovable properties may not be asserted against third parties, unless the same are registered pursuant to the applicable provisions of the Real Estate Registration Act and other laws regarding registration. In Japan, as typical countries adopting the consensualism and registration antagonism system, it should be understood that the ownership of a property has not just transferred once, so as to justify multiple transactions. Under the circumstances of multiple licenses, the right to use the license should coexist without registration. In light of the fact that the doctrine of registration antagonism has been widely discussed in Japan for years, this dissertation attempts to examine the development of the doctrine of registration antagonism in the academy, and to provide a patent(trademark) licensing registration mode to apply to the whole intellectual property system, as a reference of the academic discussion and its application in courts.

References


參考文獻
一、中文文獻
J. T. McCarthy、趙晉枚、劉孔中、黃銘傑、包志成、李恬野(2005),《商標法整體法制暨具體修法建議之研究》,研究單位:開元法律專利事務所,委託單位:經濟部智慧財產局。
人民法院報(04/26/2017),〈專利權既是排他權也是實施權〉,民商審判版。
小野昌延、三山峻司(2013),加賀山茂(著)、于敏(譯)(2000),〈日本物權法中的對抗問題〉,《外國法譯評》,2000年第2期,頁18-25。

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