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  • Theses

生育政治的期待與現實:馬來西亞華裔生育圖像的族群與性別政治分析

The Expectation and Reality of Reproduction Politics: An Ethnic and Gender Political Analysis of Malaysian Chinese’s Reproductive Profile

Advisor : 范雲
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Abstracts


馬來西亞以「發展」為名推行鼓勵生育的人口政策,同時,華基政黨與華人社團也呼籲華裔家庭與女人多生育。但是,華人的生育率並沒有因此提升,反而下降。為什麽華裔(女人)不願多生?這是本論文的核心問題。本研究希望以華裔婦女的生育經驗為例,從族群與性別政治兩個軸向來探討宏觀國家、中層華社與微觀女人的生育圖像。 從宏觀層次來看,人口政策處在與馬來西亞種族化政策交織的關係下,不再純然是一種發展主義政策,反而充滿種族、性別與階級意涵。國家除了積極打造中產階級家庭的意識形態,也鼓吹女人必須身兼勞動者與母職的角色。在中層的部分,華社低人口危機感是鑲嵌在馬來西亞族群政黨政治與種族化政策的權力關係之内。同時,華社傾向將生育責任個人化,把華人低生育問題歸咎於不事生育的女人。華裔女人的生育經驗表面看似與國家政策/華社論述無太多交集,但是女人在思量生養問題時,其背後隱含著「不在場的馬來人」的種族差異比較,並發展出具有階級優劣的對應策略,以保障孩子未來的成長。 至於微觀的面向,我從生育觀念、懷孕生産、照顧教養到女人自主的生育歷程,勾勒出女人的生育不是順其自然的。它往往牽涉照顧網絡、經濟資源、身體狀態、心境調整、家庭關係與個人自助等多重面向的交互影響與考慮,是一種情境式與關係性的過程。女人的生養經驗經過現實協商與制度互動的過程後,與原本期待的生育計劃產生落差。 外在相關生養支援機制(醫療與托育)的缺乏進一步鞏固「為母經驗私人化」,女人為了緩解生養壓力,仰賴其向上流動的階級位置,以及自身的家庭網絡分工去脫困。生育責任個人化與為母經驗私人化的交互影響下,華裔女人處於「生育階層化」的情境中。因此,女人的生育計劃往往不會順從國家與華社的意願。女人沒有按照國家與華社的意思執行生育計劃,也是一種鬥爭與抵抗。

Keywords

生育 身體 母職 種族化 階級 性別政治 族群政治

Parallel abstracts


While Malaysia implemented a population policy which encourages childbirth in the name of ‘development’, Chinese political parties and community also appealed to the Chinese families and women for having more children. However, the Chinese fertility rate has not improved yet still declining. Why Chinese (women) refuse to have more children? This is the central question of this thesis. This study focuses on the reproduction experience of Chinese women. It examines reproductive profile, which divides into macro (national) – meso (Chinese community) – micro (Chinese women) levels, from two aspects: ethnic and gender politics. This study realizes that population policy, under the intertwining with Malaysian racial policy, is not only a developmentalism policy but full of implication of race, gender and class. Meanwhile, the state constructs the ideology of middle class family; in addition, it promotes women to undertake the role of labor and motherhood. At the meso-level, I emphasized that Chinese community’s perception on low population crisis should be embedded into the context of power relation between Malaysian ethnic politics and racial policy as well. In the meantime, Chinese community tends to personalize the reproduction responsibility and further problematized and attributed low fertility rate to women who do not give birth. The reproduction experiences of Chinese women are seemingly has no relation to the state policy and Chinese community’s discourse. The comparison of racial differences, however, is always hidden behind the issue of reproduction. Class-comparison strategy is being developed in order to protect their children future. Also, from the micro perspective, this study investigates the reproductive process, which includes the concept of childbirth pregnancy and procreation, childcare and the autonomous of women, and argues that the reproduction isn’t natural but is a situational and relational process. It often involves in multiple influences and considerations, such as care network, economic resources, physical condition, mental adjustment, family relationship and personal autonomous. The disparity between the original expectation of family planning and the women reproduction experiences emerged after they negotiate and interact with reality and institution. The lack of related external support system (Ex: medical and child care) reinforces the privatization of mothering. Women could need to relieve their pressure of reproduction by depending on upward mobility of class position and the division labor of family network. The interrelated of personalized reproduction responsibility and the privatization of mothering cause Chinese women encounter with the stratification of reproduction. Accordingly, their family planning always does not conform to the expectation of the state and Chinese community, and this reaction actually implies as a form of struggles and resistant.

Parallel keywords

Reproduction Body Motherhood Racial Class Gender Politics Ethnic politics

References


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