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  • Theses

在全球化中綻放──從蝴蝶蘭跨界商品鏈探討台灣出口農業的全球化

Blooming in Globalization: Phalaenopsis Orchid's Cross-border Commodity Chain as a Case of Taiwan's Agricultural Global Development

Advisor : 王鴻楷
Co-Advisor : 夏鑄九(Chu-Joe Hsia)

Abstracts


本研究以台灣蝴蝶蘭產業為切入點,以中小型農企業的生產網絡為分析單元,探討台灣經濟發展脈絡下的出口農業如何納入全球經濟,以深化及拓展農業全球化理論。台灣蝴蝶蘭產業的全球化以活體商品的跨界商品鏈為其形態特徵,但其與工業商品鏈不同的農業部門的獨特性是,生物僵固性與貿易彈性間的張力驅動了垂直分工的生產網絡,以及,其與傳統出口作物不同的蘭花商品的獨特性是,異質性的文化商品消費驅動了多樣化的利基市場。援此,將蝴蝶蘭跨界商品鏈的生產─市場整合視為農業全球化的「新」現象時,本研究試圖撥開此商品鏈形態背後的「新」的社會的、經濟的與技術的組織方式,以及形塑其關鍵驅動力的歷史過程。本研究將論證,是生物僵固性、貿易彈性、與異質性文化消費這組矛盾關係,驅動台灣蝴蝶蘭業者透過生產工業化、跨界運籌、與介入商品價值界定的綜合努力,形塑蝴蝶蘭商品鏈的跨界分工形態,但也因生物僵固性與分工位置的限制,形成生產網絡的及時生產的不對稱關係。台灣蝴蝶蘭業者納入全球經濟的努力與結果,標示了台灣經濟發展脈絡下農業全球化的獨特性:以後殖民的新興工業國來標示台灣,其農業全球化不是來自傳統農業部門的孤立的轉化過程,不是農業部門與工業部門間的投入產出的機械性接合過程,不是大型跨國公司的跨部門與跨界的整合,也不是第三世界的外債壓力下的被整合;其以中小農企業的工業化與國際化為主體的特徵,是異質部門間正式的與非正式互動所形成的綜效,而以園藝帝國主義及其遺制、農業再結構、以及出口導向工業化與產業升級這三個面向的交互作用為其歷史時勢。

Parallel abstracts


As existing theories of globalization of agriculture are largely focused on agro-food multinational corporations in advanced capitalist countries, how small producers in less developed countries participate in the global economy has been paid little attention. This research takes Phalaenopsis orchid industry as an example to explore some of the unique globalization processes of Taiwan’s export agriculture. Phalaenopsis, a non-traditional export crop, has a ‘new’ way of agricultural production and consumption which is indicated by a ‘new’ technological, social, economic and geographical development. Since globalization of the Phalaenopsis industry is characterized by a vertically articulated live commodity chain and particular traits of cultural consumption, the author argues that the tensions between biological rigidity, trade flexibility and consumer heterogeneity serve as the driving force in shaping the division of labor in the commodity chain. The way Taiwanese orchid growers deal with the tensions is to practice just-in-time production through a combined effort of agricultural industrialization, cross-border logistics and defining commodity value for various market niches. Yet, on the other hand, due to constraints resulting from the tensions and positions in the labor-division network, the just-in-time production practice is in an asymmetric relationship to accelerate buyers’ turnover rate at the expense of suppliers’ over production. This story of Taiwanese orchid growers’ participation in the global economy epitomizes the idiosyncrasies of Taiwan’s agricultural globalization in the context of the post-colonial heritages as well as the industrialization development being one of New Industrial Countries. It reveals a hybrid synergy resulting from a historical conjuncture of European and Japanese horticultural colonization and Taiwan’s agricultural restructuring, export-oriented industrialization and upgrading, rather than, as postulated by mainstream theories, an isolated transformation process of a traditional agricultural sector, a mechanical input-output linkage between agricultural and industrial sectors, a cross-sectoral and cross-border integration initiated by giant multinationals, or an integrated process introduced by foreign creditors.

References


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