透過您的圖書館登入
IP:44.201.97.0
  • Theses

瑯嶠十八社頭人卓杞篤家族與恆春半島族群關係之變遷(1867-1874)

The Family of Tokitok, the Chief of the Lonckjouw 18 Tribes, and the Transformation of Ethnic Relationships on the Hengchun Peninsula, 1867-1874

Advisor : 周婉窈
For better promotion, authorized us if you are the author.

Abstracts


本文試圖以在地視角,討論位於清代番界外恆春半島南端的準政權組織瑯嶠十八社,其統治者大股頭人卓杞篤(Tokitok, c.1810- c.1873)與繼任者,如何在開港通商後的1867年至1874年間,以靈活的外交手腕,利用自身固有的社會文化元素,與諸多外來強權如清廷、美軍以及日軍周旋,最大限度地保有自主性。以十八社大股頭人為個案,除了可以重探瑯嶠地區的自主性之餘,也能提供一個新的方式來理解清代臺灣的社會樣貌。以下為各章之論述過程: 第二章試圖重探既存關於瑯嶠地區的文獻,定位其所呈現的「共相」,並藉此重建十九世紀後半開港通商前瑯嶠地區的圖景。筆者發現,自十七世紀以來,恆春半島均存在著顯著的「十八社架構」以及所謂的「瑯嶠君主」;而瑯嶠地區的各個聚落彼此依貿易以及婚姻網絡進行聯繫,時有結盟與衝突。這些貿易網絡藉由海路聯繫界內與界外東部地區,筆者以「界外番產交易」涵蓋之。 第三章則是圍繞在卓杞篤與李仙得所簽訂〈南岬之盟〉的效用與追認。本章藉由討論卓杞篤在公共場合的的辭令與姿態,認為〈南岬之盟〉是一種建立在卓杞篤與李仙得兩者一種個人式的外交關係,卓杞篤欲藉著能有效代表十八社對外談判的機會,維繫自己的權威,藉此重建十八社的框架。但其試圖改變既有漂流民處理慣例的作法,勢必面臨內部其他番社的挑戰。1871年的琉球漂流民遇難事件,即是卓杞篤無法規範既存慣例的例子。 第四章首先重構1874年牡丹社事件的導火線──1871年琉球漂流民遇害事件的過程。筆者發現琉球漂流民上岸接受款待,以及遇害的過程並非偶發事件,而是一則鑲嵌在清廷既有的漂流民送還體制,以及連接番界內外的帆船交易體系,對於漂流物資處理慣例的一則「界外番產交易」的運作實例。其次,本章討論大股頭人代理人伊厝(Yeesuk)於1874年應對日軍入侵的過程,除了轉移自身所屬部落的危機,並藉此機會重新收服北部的牡丹社群。本章最後討論新任大股頭人接班人潘文杰(1854-1905)興起的意義。潘文杰是卓杞篤之外甥與養子、粵籍統埔庄林姓粵人後裔。其敏銳的政治眼光,以及與牡丹社群的人際網絡關係,是得以克服血緣上的劣勢而成為繼承人,並維持十八社框架二十年,至日治初期大放異彩的原因。

Parallel abstracts


This thesis uses a local perspective to discuss how Tokitok (c.1810- c.1873), the chief of a quasi-regime organization in Henchun peninsula called “Lonckjouw 18 Tribes,” and his successor took advantage of their diplomatic craft with the cultural and social elements in order to deal with foreign powers such as the Qing government and the U.S. and Japanese military forces and maintained their autonomy maximally. Through the case of Lonckjouw 18 Tribes, we can not only rethink the autonomy of Lonckjouw but approach the Taiwan society under the Qing regime from a new perspective. The discussion in each chapter unfolds as follows. Chapter two reexamines the existing literature to rebuild the “commonality” and the picture of Lonckjouw before the opening of treaty ports in the second half of the nineteenth century. I discover that there have been a prominent “monarch of Lonckjouw” and “the structure of eighteen tribes” since the seventeenth century. The settlements of Lonckjouw sometimes form alliance or conflict with one another in their trading and marriage networks. These trading networks connect western Taiwan with eastern Taiwan across the Aboriginal Boundary. I call them “the aboriginal goods trading outside the Aboriginal Boundary.” Chapter three discusses the conclusion and recognition of “the Treaty of South Cape” signed by Tokitok and Charles le Gendre (1830-1899). The analysis of Tokitok’s rhetoric and attitude in the public space shows that the Treaty of South Cape is a personal diplomatic relationship between Tokitok and le Gendre. Tokitok wanted to rebuild the structure of eighteen tribes and to renew his power by negotiating on behalf of the eighteen tribes. However, his attempt to change the wreckage management practice was challenged by other tribes. The Ryukyu Castaway Incident in 1871 illustrated how Tokitok failed to regulate the existing practice. Chapter four reconstructs the process of the 1871 Ryukyu Castaway Incident, which is known as a trigger for the Japanese invasion of Taiwan in 1874. I discover that the 1871 incident, in which the Ryukyu castaways were received and killed by the aborigines, was not a random incident. It was an example showing how the aboriginal goods trading outside the Aboriginal Boundary operated. This trade system was enmeshed in the castaway repatriation system of the Qing government and the junk trade across the Aboriginal Boundary. Secondly, this chapter discusses how Yeesuk, the deputy of the chief, responded to the Japanese military invasion. Yeesuk successfully resolved the crisis of his tribes and used this opportunity to put under his control again the Boudan tribes’ alliance in the north. Finally, this chapter discusses the meaning of the rise of the new chief successor, Pan Wen-jie (1854-1905). Pan Wen-jie, Tokitok’s nephew and adopted son, was born in a Hakka village. His keen political insight and social networking with the Boudan tribes’ alliance allowed him to overcome the disadvantage of his lineage and to become the successor. That was the reason why Pan Wen-jie could maintain the structure of eighteen tribes for 20 years and had a magnificent performance during the beginning of the Japanese Colonization Era.

References


林玉茹,〈清末北臺灣漁村社會的搶船習慣──以《淡新檔案》為中心的討論〉,《新史學》第20卷第2期,2009,臺北,頁115-165。
詹素娟,〈贌社、地域與平埔社群的成立〉,《臺大文史哲學報》第五十九期,2003,臺北,頁117- 142。
王元穉編,《甲戌公牘鈔存》。臺北:臺灣銀行經濟研究室,1959[1878?]。
王瑛曾,《重修鳳山縣志》。臺北:臺灣銀行經濟研究室,1962[1764]。
朱仕玠,《小琉球漫志》。臺北:臺灣銀行經濟研究室,1957[1765]。

Read-around