摘要 《難民法》草案是一部在立法院延宕超過十年的法案，屬於人權法案中的一環，因所適用的客體非主流的國民，而是極少能被社會大眾所關注的尋求庇護者，也就是所謂的「難民」。 我國自詡民主人權立國，是東亞民主國家中的海上燈塔，但卻無法如同先進民主國家中，已具備一套給予尋求庇護者的難民庇護制度，惟並非我國不具備這樣的人權價值觀，而是因為我國獨有的特殊政治環境所致，以致於在十幾年前提出的法案，歷經了立法院四個屆期的提案，直至國會第一次輪替的第九屆時，獲得了前所未有的進展，但仍在通過法案的臨門一腳前遭本屆數會期的冷凍，而再次停滯不前。 本文乘載過去國內學者對於國際人權法中對難民客體的保障，到國難民內庇護制度的研究，試圖以我國難民法之法制發展沿革的角度去補足當前研究所不足之處，以本文撰寫者在國會之實際經驗，透過文獻分析、比較法條分析和歷史研究，來建構我國的難民法立法沿革。 以《難民法》的立法過程為核心從過去的數屆次的各個版本之間的差異，到在草案通過前現行法制下的法律狀態，以及未來《難民法》通過後的可能情形。先從本法涉及的國際公約與國內外政府組織談起，再從最初的草案版本開始，到本文撰寫時最新的「審查會版」之間的所有的草案版本，其中有以在不同政黨執政下的行政院版本草案，以及立法院從第七屆至第九屆的立委提案版本草案，而就不同版本之間的精神與立場，更彰顯出本文欲探究《難民法》草案背後的爭議問題。 除過去草案發展沿革外，更探討在建立完整的庇護制度前，現行法制下如何處理難民庇護的問題，且由於我國特殊政治環境，因而形成一套複雜的庇護體系，並提出與《難民法》相關配套法律的沿革與現行法制，再就未來《難民法》草案與相關配套法律通過後可能的修正與影響。最後再提出目前《難民法》草案版本可能的問題，並就個人經驗提出建議，以利未來立法者有機會以此考量，試圖對未來《難民法》草案進入二讀、三讀時有所貢獻。
Abstract The Refugees Law, which is part of the Human Rights Act, has been postponed for more than a decade in the Legislature due to it applies to foreigners who are seeking for asylum in Taiwan rather than citizens. Taiwan proclaims itself as a democratic country that is grounded on the idea of human rights. However, unlike other advanced democracies, Taiwan has not yet designed an institution to take care of asylum-seekers. This is not because Taiwan does not respect human rights but due to its distinctive political situation. In fact the Refugees Law was proposed more than a decade ago and has gone through four legislative terms. While it has been discussed extensively in the 9th legislative term, the law is postponed again. Following relevant research on international human rights law, particularly refugees’ protection and asylum institution, this thesis aims not only to fill the gap in current research but also to better explain the evolution of the Refugees Law legislation from the author’s first-hand experience as a legislative assistant, literature analysis, comparative legal analysis and historical research. The thesis focuses on the legislative process of the Refugees Law in particular differences among its various versions, its current legal status under current legal system, and how it could work once the law was passed. It begins with a discussion on relevant international covenants, domestic and international organizations, before moving to discuss the evolution of the of the Refugees Law legislation with a focus on all draft versions proposed by the Executive Yuan under different administrations from the 7th to the 9th legislative term. All of these help to highlight controversial issues lying behind the draft of Refugee Law. In addition to the evolution of the of the Refugees Law legislation, this thesis also discusses how to deal with the issue of asylum under current legal system. Moreover, it argues that the distinctive political situation Taiwan faces will constitute a very complicated asylum institution. It will also discuss possible impacts brought by the Refugees Laws once it was formally passed in the Legislature. The thesis finally points out problems of current draft and provides stakeholders with recommendations to contribute to the second reading and third reading of the draft of Refugee Law in the future.