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  • Theses

相對教育位置與初職地位取得之世代差異

The Positional Value of Education and the First Job Attainment: A Comparative Cohort Study in Taiwan

Advisor : 張峯彬

Abstracts


台灣高等教育擴張進程已有時日,迄今擁有大學文憑已十分普遍。在此發展脈絡下,大學畢業所能取得之初職地位是否隨之變化?本文以地位取得模型為基礎,探討家庭背景、教育成就以及初職社經地位之關聯有無世代差異。另外,根據相對位置觀點及隊列理論,比較絕對教育成就(是否擁有大學文憑)與相對教育位置(PSI分數,positional status index)兩種測量尺度在模型分析上的差別。本文使用「台灣社會變遷基本調查」2002年、2005年、2007年、2009年、2012年及2019年之年度調查資料,限定九年義務教育政策下之出生世代(1965年至1994年),依據不同高教變革階段區分三個世代(早期世代、中期世代和晚期世代)。另外,由於男女在教育成就與職業地位取得上有不同的發展進程,故按性別分析。 研究發現,以絕對尺度測量時,家庭社經背景對絕對教育成就之影響效果不隨世代降低,反之,中期世代女性受父親教育成就之影響增加。以相對尺度測量時,家庭社經背景對相對教育位置之影響效果在男性樣本中有降低的情形,父親職業地位對中期世代男性之影響減少。初職社經地位方面,當以絕對教育成就作為中介變項時,教育對初職地位之影響效果隨著世代降低;當以相對教育位置分析時,教育對初職地位之影響效果不隨世代變化。在高教擴張下,雖有文憑貶值現象,教育對初職地位的影響效果未有減少。整體平均教育水平的提升看似回應了社會普遍對教育的期待,然而學生追就教育所需投注的資源與時間越來越多,教育的職業回報卻沒有相應提升。雖不符合功利效益,卻為了防禦自身在社會上的社經地位,致使學生不得不提高教育水平的窘境。

Parallel abstracts


As a result of educational expansion, it is prevalent to have a college degree in Taiwan these days. In this case, has the returns to education changed accordingly? Based on the status attainment model, this article examines whether the associations of family background, educational achievement, and the first-job status achievement differ across birth cohorts. According to the positional good perspective and queuing theory, this study employs two measurements of education to examine the association thereof: the absolute term (whether having a college degree) and the relative/ positional term (positional status index, PSI score). To cover individuals born between 1964 and 1994 with nine-year compulsory education, we use the data from six waves of Taiwan Social Change Survey (TSCS) (2002, 2005, 2007, 2009, 2012, and 2019). The sample is divided into three birth cohorts by educational expansion stages. Moreover, since the trends in educational attainment and job status attainment differ between men and women, this study analyzes by gender. Results show that the association between family background and educational attainment does not decline across cohorts, when attainment is measured in absolute terms. Instead, it tends to increase in mid-cohort women with the intensify impact of fathers’ educational achievement. However, when attainment is measured in relative terms, the association decreases in mid-cohort men as the effect of fathers’ job status diminishes. In terms of first job attainment, when education is measured in absolute term as a mediating variable, the association between education and first job attainment declines over cohorts; when it is measured in relative term, the association persists. Despite the credential inflation, our findings show that educational expansion did not reduce the association between education and first job attainment. The rise in average education level seems to have met the mass expectations for education, however, in an over-qualified labour market, the higher cost of educational investment has failed to correspondingly improve returns to education. Although not in line with the utilitarianism, individuals raise their educational attainment as a 'defensive' measure to maintain their socioeconomic status.

References


符碧真(2000)。教育擴張對入學機會均等影響之研究。教育研究集刊,44,201-223。
黃毅志(2003)。「臺灣地區新職業聲望與社經地位量表」之建構與評估:社會科學與教育社會學研究本土化。教育研究集刊,49(4),1-31。
參考文獻
王德睦(2014)。第十五章:人口。收錄於王振寰、瞿海源主編,社會學與台灣社會(四版),399-422。台北:巨流。
行政院主計處(2002)。近年勞動市場變化之研析(民91年7月)。2021年4月29日取自https://www.stat.gov.tw/ct.asp?xItem=41112&ctNode=516&mp=4

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