本研究的主要目的在於探討我國國中及高中學生有關平衡概念之迷思概念及心智模式的類型。研究對象是取自國中學生合計共229人、高級中學學生共403人。 研究重點以國中理化、高中基礎化學、物質科學化學篇、選修化學教材為主，統整其中的平衡概念，建立重要的教學目標，據此完成概念圖及命題陳述以發展相關工具(包含開放式紙筆測驗及晤談)，並根據所得的資籵再發展成二階段診斷測驗，試題的第一部分是檢驗學生對概念了解的正確性，第二部分是探就學生之所以具有此種認知的理由，再作定性及定量的分析，找出學生的迷思概念及其背後所隱含之心智模式類型。茲將主要研究結果摘錄如下： 一、我國中學學生學習平衡發生迷思概念最多的單元在：動平衡、勒沙特列原理、反應速率與其影響因素、化學反應方程式等。 二、心智模式可以分成直觀模式、語言模式、記憶錯誤連結模式、臆測模式、推理錯誤模式和原理誤用模式。 三、在平衡單元中迷思概念隨年級增加而下降的是：化學反應方程式、催化劑對反應速率的影響。 四、迷思概念之主要成因應和錯誤推論、名詞誤用、經驗錯用、勒沙特列原理錯誤推理、和誤用概念、質量守?睅伬P錯誤推論有關。 本研究結果所呈現的學生迷思概念類型及其比例可作為教師教學時的參考資料庫。
This study is aimed to explore the result of comprehensive level on misconceptions and metal models about chemical equilibrium with junior high school and senior high school pupils. There were 229 junior high and 403 senior high school pupils for clinic interviews and further discussions. This study was based on the present physical textbooks for junior high school pupils and chemistry science textbooks for senior high school pupils. It attempted to integrate the concepts of chemical equilibrium mentioned in those textbooks, to construct concept maps, propositional statements, and then a two-tier test questionnaire. This study employed open-ended paper-and-pencil questionnaire, interviewing questionnaire, and a set of two tier test items. The first tier was examined content knowledge and pupils’ understanding of that knowledge in the second. Analyses of the quantitative and qualitative data were done according to the pupils’ responses in order to find the types of misconceptions and mental models. The following were the main conclusions of this study： 1. Most misconception happened in: dynamic equilibrium, Le Chatelier principle, reaction rate and effect, and chemical reaction equations. 2. The mental model were divided into intuitional model, linguistic model, incorrect connection memory model, supposed model, wrong inference model, and principle misapplied model. 3. In the section of chemical equilibrium, the misconceptions held by the pupils were eliminated when the grades increase; they were chemical reaction equations and catalyst influence for reaction rate. 4. The results of misconceptions were related to incorrect inferences, misused terms, inappropriate experiences, incorrect inference of Le Chatelier Principle, misused concepts , and incore inference of conservation . Teachers might furthermore take research results as reference to clarify students’ misconceptions revealed by the study.