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殖民地戰爭的舞臺:對德國殖民地戰爭中極端軍事暴行之再評估的反思

The Colonial Theater of War: Reflections on a Revaluation of Extreme Military Violence in the German Colonial Wars

Abstracts


論及在德國殖民地戰爭中極端的軍隊暴行的原因時,被提出的主要因素是動機和意圖,以及德國軍方在心理上的傾向。認定從這些殖民地戰爭到第二次世界大戰之間,殲滅其他種族的渴望具有一種延續性的看法,特別是德國軍方,所持的基本論點是,這些事件是相似的以及這些態度都是在相同的推論上。然而,資料未足以去論斷這些假設。這也只是聚焦在西南非之黑瑞洛(Herero)與納馬(Nama)戰爭,而不將其他殖民地戰爭納入考慮中。有人認為存有一種特殊的德國軍事暴力的毀滅性的模式,其不僅展現在殖民地戰爭,亦於隨後由德國所引起的戰爭中顯示出來,無論在殖民地或在歐洲,這種看法奠基於一個論點,就是存在著一些由軍事機構所塑造出來的特殊行為模式。如此便引出一個問題,就是德國士兵在殖民地戰爭中的行為在實際上是否符合在歐洲的規範與規則。一些證據顯示確實有所不同,其中一項突顯出來,即在殖民地戰爭中使用武力的不同方式。種族殲滅戰發生於德屬西南非,但卻未發生於東非以及中國,究竟西南非何處異於他者? 暴力運用的本質和程度不僅可能取決於德國國家歷史及其結構的內在邏輯,亦可取決於與當地環境的互動,而環境本身則有諸多不同的原因。每一個被執行的暴力行為都是一連串特殊環境的結果,而這些都有某些偶然因素的標記:所引發的每一場戰爭以及暴力程度都是在特殊的「戰爭舞臺」條件下的結果。 針對上述問題,本文將分別討論德國軍隊在中國、西南非以及東非的暴行,並進一步討論「戰爭舞臺」的概念如何滲透入士兵的思想、認知、可能的行動和行動範圍,並釐清當地狀態;此將有助於釐清殖民地戰爭舞臺概念,而這概念可以對軍隊暴力行為提出較前人描述更細膩的解釋。

Parallel abstracts


When it comes to the causes of extreme military violence in the German colonial wars, the primary factors cited have been the motivations and intentions, along with the mental or psychological dispositions of the German military, the primary factors cited have been the motivations and intentions, along with the mental or psychological dispositions of the German military. The assertion that there is a continuity of genocidal desire to exterminate others from these colonial wars to World War Ⅱ, specifically on the part of the German military, is based on the argument that events are similar and on the inference that attitudes were identical. Sources yield no evidence to confirm this hypothesis, however. It also focuses only on the Herero and Nama War in German South-West Africa, while the other colonial wars are left outside of consideration. The assertion that there is a specifically German destructive type of military violence that was expressed not only in the colonial wars, but also in all later wars waged by Germany, whether in the colonies or in Europe, is based on the argument of there being particular types of conduct shaped by the institution of the military. This raises the question, however, of whether the behavior of German soldiers in the colonial wars was in fact in-line with the norms and rules set in place in Europe. Among the pieces of evidence that such was not the case, one item stands out: the different ways in which force was used in the colonial wars. Genocide occurred in German South-West Africa, but not in German East Africa or China. What was different about German South-West Africa? The nature and extent of the violence used can be determined not only from a logic inherent in the German national history and its structures, but also by the interaction of local circumstances, which themselves have a number of different causes. The acts of violence perpetrated in each case were the result of specific sets of circumstances, and they were marked by certain contingencies: the waging of each war and the extent of the violence involved were the result of the conditions in the specific ”theater of war”. In accordance with above of issues, this essay dividedly discusses the violence of German troops who were deployed to the colonies and at three colonial wars: those in China, in German South-West Africa, and in German East Africa, then, it goes dicuss the term ”theater of war” how to penetrate the mindsets and perceptions, the possible actions and scopes of action of soldiers at the time, and on illuminating the local situation. Thus, this eaasy will yield the concept of the colonial theater of war, which permits a more nuanced explanation of military acts of violence than previous depictions.

Parallel keywords

Theater of War Colonial War Germany Genocide

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