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從土地神到曼谷神廟:泰國曼谷叻差巴頌路口愛侶灣四面佛梵天與印度教系神像

From Earth God to the Shrine of Bangkok: Phra Phrom of the Erawan Shrine and Images of Hindu-related Gods at the Ratcharasong Intersection in Bangkok, Thailand

Abstracts


本研究透過曼谷愛侶灣四面佛梵天神廟及其周邊叻差巴頌(Ratchaprasong)路口印度教系神像探討,跳脫侷限於佛教、印度教、民間泛靈巫術信仰的分類思考,從王室、商業發展、民間創造力三個面向不同行動者出發,以象徵和實踐層面來綜論當代泰國印度教系信仰實踐的多樣性。愛侶灣四面佛梵天神廟的設立實基於泰國土地神信仰的宗教創新,然而此創新與該地區由王室主導開發所象徵的歷史記憶高度相關。另一方面,與王室結合的商業集團與消費主義,也為此區域林立的印度教系神像帶來新的意義。然而,民間的信仰實踐則更為多元,無論是消極抵抗或積極轉化接受,甚如宗教專家們在宗教市場中的創意競逐,更豐富此區域印度教系神像信仰實踐的多樣化意義。

Parallel abstracts


Through a discussion of the Erawan Phra Phrom Shrine and the images of Hindu-related gods around the Ratchaprasong intersection in Bangkok, this research aims to break free from the restrictive classifications of Buddhism, Hinduism, and popular beliefs concerning animism and shamanism. The paper proceeds from a discussion of three different agents: the royal family, commercial development, and popular creativity, examining them at their symbolic and practical levels, to provide a more comprehensive discussion of the diversity of contemporary Hindu-related beliefs and practices. The establishment of the Erawan Phra Prom Shrine is grounded in religious innovations concerning Thailand’s animistic beliefs; however, such innovations are highly correlated with the symbolic historical memory of the development in this area led by the royal family. On the other hand, business groups connected with the royal family and consumerism have also brought new meaning to the numerous images of Hindu-related gods in this area. Nevertheless, popular religious beliefs and practices are even more diverse. Despite the presence of the royal family and consumerism, some actors passively resist them, while others seek to actively transform their related ideas. Some religious specialists even attempt to compete in the creativity of the religious market, further enriching the diverse meanings of Hindu-related divine images, beliefs, and practices in the Ratchaprasong area.

References


片岡樹 2014 〈中国廟からみたタイ仏教論―南タイ,プーケットの事例を中心に―〉,《アジア・アフリカ地域研究》14(1):1-42。
片岡樹 2015 〈タイ国における中国系善堂の宗教活動 : 泰国義徳善堂に見る中国系宗教とタイ仏教〉,《東南アジア研究》52(2):172-207。
加納寛 1996 〈バンコク市街地における土地神信仰の変遷 - 祠・神体の形態変化を中心に -〉,《東南アジア -歴史と文化-》25:28-57。
矢野秀武 2006 《現代タイにおける仏教運動―タンマガーイ式瞑想とタイ社会の変容》。東京:東信堂。
矢野秀武 2017 《国家と上座仏教ータイの政教関係》。札幌:北海道大学出版会。

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