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打造司法獨立:臺灣審判獨立機制之發展、互動與影響

Mobilizing Judicial Independence: The Dynamic Development and Impact of Internal Mechanisms in Taiwan

Abstracts


臺灣法官如何打造審判獨立?結合訪談、田野資料與大量歷史文書,本文提出三點主張:第一,司法內部機制多元且相互牽連,審判獨立是動態的非線性過程。沒有哪一項內部機制單獨建構審判獨立,但總體相成就獨立的結果。第二,「下上夾擊」的動員模式:法官的集體行動以及司法院改革皆為關鍵。法官的集體動員一則改變了社群內部的政治意識與行動邏輯,二則獲得白紙黑字的規範-前者是後者運行成功的基礎。第三,內建於大陸法系科層體制中的緊張關係浮現:即個別法官的審判空間,與科層體制對其表現的控制,必然相對。未實任的資淺法官尤受影響。

Parallel abstracts


How do Taiwanese judges acquire autonomy in decision-making, free from intervention from the judicial administration? Using diverse archival data and in-depth interviews with 31 incumbent judges, this article makes three statements. First, the judiciary has multiple and inter-connected mechanisms to secure autonomy in decision making. The establishment of judicial independence is a dynamic and interactive process. Second, a distinctive "sandwich mobilization model" can be observed in the emergence and sustaining of internal mechanisms. Both the bottom-up mobilization by ordinary judges and the top-down policy reform by the judicial administration are critical driving forces for the establishment of judicial autonomy. Third, as Taiwan's judiciary normalized, the institutional tension inherent in the continental judicial system emerged. That is, the individual space for judicial decision-making stands in contrast to the bureaucratic monitoring of individual judges' performance. Particularly, untenured junior judges are under critical impact.

References


中央研究院 1996 〈台南地方法院合議庭審判王滔夫賄選案〉。戰後臺灣歷史年表,政治社會類別,7月 1 日。2021 年 12 月 21 日,取自 https://twstudy.iis.sinica.edu.tw/Twht/Professional/Reference.php?EventID=47515(Academia Sinica, 1996, “Tainan District Court Made Decision on Wang Tao-fu’s Bribery on Election,” The Taiwan History Chronical, July 1. Retrieved December 21, 2021, from https://twstudy.iis.sinica.edu.tw/Twht/Professional/Reference.php?EventID=47515)
王文玲 2007 〈賴英照派連江地院院長遭「封殺」〉。聯合報,12 月 13 日。2021 年 12 月 21 日,取自 http://city.udn.com/54532/2563074(Wang, Wen-ling, 2007, “The Assignment of the President for the Lianjiang District Court by President Lai Ing-chao Is Sealed,” United Daily, December 13. Retrieved December 21, 2021, from http://city.udn.com/54532/2563074)
王金壽 2007 〈獨立的司法、不獨立的法官?民主化後的司法獨立與民主監督〉,《臺灣社會研究季刊》67: 1-38。(Wang, Chin-shou, 2007, “Independent Judiciary, Dependent Judges? Judicial Independence and Supervision under Democracy since Taiwan’s Democratization,” Taiwan: A Radical Quarterly in Social Studies 67: 1-38.)
王金壽 2008a〈臺灣司法改革二十年:邁向獨立之路〉,《思與言:人文與社會科學期刊》46(2): 133-174。(Wang, Chin-shou, 2008a, “Judicial Reform in Taiwan in the Past Twenty Years: On the Road to Independence,” Thoughts and Words: Journal of the Humanities and Social Science 46(2): 133-174.)
王金壽 2008b〈司法獨立與民主可問責性:論臺灣的司法人事權〉,《臺灣政治學刊》12(2): 115-164。(Wang, Chin-shou, 2008b, “Judicial Independence and Democratic Accountability: On Judicial Personnel in Taiwan,” Taiwanese Political Science Review 12(2): 115-164.)

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