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北朝升天成仙思想在佛教石窟中的實踐:「天」圖像再利用與莫高窟第285窟功能再探

The Practice of the Belief in Ascending to Heaven and Becoming an Immortal in the Northern Dynasty in Buddhist Grottoes: Re-use of "Heavenly" Motifs and Re-exploration of the Functions of Mogao Cave 285

Abstracts


西夏時期對莫高窟西魏第285窟空間改造再利用,主室正中建一五層壇城,把其中的8個小龕改作瘞埋僧人的場所,龕口起塔封堵,或在龕中起一塔,有集體瘞埋的屬性。西夏人對第285窟重修行為和莫高窟其他大量重修重繪洞窟在方式上有本質的區別,這種區別提示第285窟原本的洞窟功能與僧人舍利瘞埋之間的強烈關聯,這一點也正好和窟頂具有濃厚漢晉傳統觀念的天界圖像相結合,共同彰顯窟頂天象、天界、天部圖像所表達的古人對升天成仙、往生天國、神生淨土永恆主題的追求。聯繫西夏人空間再造對洞窟原本屬性與功能的認識並利用,結合窟頂天界圖像所表達的古人對死後世界理解與追求的永恆主題,再仔細觀察南北壁8個小龕華麗龕楣所表達的再生觀念,大體上可以推斷此洞窟的開鑿與北朝時期僧人真身或舍利骨灰供奉有密切的關係,表達的是供養人、功德主、佛教徒、普通信眾往生天國的永恆主題,8個小龕是供奉僧人真身或舍利骨灰的真堂、影窟。

Parallel abstracts


During the Western Xia dynasty, the Mogao Cave 285 built in Western Wei dynasty underwent space reconstruction and reuse. A five-story altar was built in the center of the main chamber. Eight smaller shrines were converted into the burial sites for Buddhist monks. Some of the shrines were blocked by pagodas, others had pagodas built inside. They depicted the characteristic of collective burial for Buddhist monks. There were fundamental differences in the methods between the restoration of Cave 285 by the Western Xia people and many other repainted caves in the Mogao Grottoes. These differences suggested a strong connection between the original cave function of Cave 285 and burial of monks' relics. This connection also coincided with the celestial images on the cave ceiling, which had strong traditional concepts of the Han and Jin dynasties, to show the pursuit of the ancients towards the eternal themes of ascending to heaven and becoming an immortal, rebirth in the heavenly realm, and entering the pure land of the gods, as expressed in the celestial motifs, heavenly realms, and images of heavenly beings depicted on the cave ceiling. By examining the spatial reconstruction methods used by the Western Xia people to repurpose the Cave and considering how they understood and utilized the original attributes and functions of the Cave, along with the eternal theme of the ancient understanding and pursuit of the afterlife expressed in the celestial images on the cave ceiling, and carefully observing the concept of regeneration expressed in the eight ornate shrines on the north and south walls, it could be inferred that the excavation of this cave was closely related to the enshrinement of the real bodies or relics of the Buddhist monks during the Northern Wei dynasty. It expressed the eternal theme of providers, the Lord of Merit, the Buddhists and the ordinary believers aspiring to reach the heavenly realms after death. The eight small shrines were the actual halls and shadow grottoes where the bodies or relics of the Buddhist monks were enshrined for worship.

References


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(後魏)賈思勰撰;繆啟愉校釋;繆桂龍參校《齊民要術校釋》,北京:農業出版社,1982。

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